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THE 



LADIES' SELF INSTRUCTOR 



IN 



MILLINERY AND MANTUA MAKING, 



EMBROIDERY AND APPLIQUE, 



CANVAS-WORK, KNITTING, NETTING 
AND CROCHET-WORK. 



ILLUSTRATED WITH NUMEROUS ENGRAVINGS 



PHILADELPHIA: 

PUBLISHED BY J. & J. L. GIHON, 

NO. 98 CHESNUT STREET. 

185 3. 



CONTENTS. 



EMBROIDERY AND APPLIQUE. 



Page 



Instructions in Embroidery with floss silk, three- 
corded, or saddler's silk, chenille, worsteds, &c. . . 15 
Sixteen Patterns for Embroidery engraved upon wood 19 

Raised Embroidery 31 

Applique 32 

Stitches in Embroidery on Muslin and Lace work . , . 34 

Satin Stitch " 

Button Hole Stitch 35 

Eyelet Hole 

Formation of Bars 

Embroidery Feather Stitch 

Glover's Stitch 

Double Button Hole Stitch , 36 

Half Herring-bone Stitch 

Lines 

Straight open Hem 

Veining open Hem 

Chain Stitch 

Pearling 

Darning 

Interior Stitch 

Eyelet Holes in Lace Work 






37 



(iiO 



IV CONTENTS. 

/ 

Spots on Net 37 

Tambour Stitch " 

Instructions in Embroidery on Muslin 38 

Instructions in Lace Work with Engravings 39 

Embroidery in Gold Thread -. 45 

Embroidery for Insertion 51 

Maxims for Memory 53 

CANVAS WORK. 

Preparations of Frames 61 

To Dress a Frame for Cross Stitch " 

Do. for Cloth work 62 

Do. for Tent Stitch " 

Materials for working 63 

Stitches 65 

Tent Stitch— Cross Stitch— Straight Cross Stitch- 
Czar Stitch— Irish Stitch— Willow Stitch— Pavilion 
Stitch — Josephine Stitch — Berlin Stitch — Long Plait 
—Feather Stitch— Stitch a la Vandyke— Point Stitch 
— Square Plait — Gobelin Stitch — Perspective Stitch 
— A Star — Velvet Stitch — Serpentine Stitch — Dou- 
ble Star — Crossed long Stitch — Fancy Stitch — Lace 
Stitch — Princess Stitch — Hohenlinden Stitch — Cane 
Pattern — Sutherland Stitch — Darmstadt Pattern — 

Palace Pattern — Plaid Pattern — Diamonds 

Rouleau Edging 76 

Algerine Work " 

To fill up Corners 77 

Special Instructions for working on Canvas 78 

Instructions in Grounding " 

Working Figures 79 

Raised Work 80 



CONTENTS. V 

Paeje 

Working Berlin Patterns 81 

Gobelin 84 

Patterns on Canvas " 

Armorial Bearings u 

Landscapes " 

Mosaic Work 85 

Gem or Set Patterns 86 

Perforated Card " 

Bead Work « 

Braid Work 8? 

Rug Bordering " 

Wire Work 88 

Articles of Luxury that may be worked on Canvas. . 89 

Gothic Chairs " 

Box Ottomans " 

Cheval Screens 90 

Urn Stands ' 

Settees ( 

Borders for Table Covers ' 

Sofa Pillows 91 

Weight Cushions ' 

Wire Baskets l 

Pool Baskets ( 

Blotting Books ' 

Slippers 92 

Oriental Carpets 

Fireside Caps 

Braces ■ 

Elbow Cushions 

Hints upon Tints 93 

General Remarks 95 

Royal and Noble Ladies 96 



VI CONTENTS. 

MILLINERY, MANTUA-MAKING, &c. 

Chap. I. — Explanation of Stitches 105 

Hemming " 

Mantua-Maker's Hem " 

Sewing and Felling " 

Running 106 

Stitching " 

Gathering " 

Double Gathering, or Puinng 107 

German Hemming " 

Whipping 108 

Herring-Boning .. " 

Fancy Herring-Boning 109 

Double Herring-Boning " 

Button-Hole " 

Fancy Button-Hole Stitch 110 

Chain Stitch " 

Chain Stitch, or Gathers u 

Fancy Chain Stitch Ill 

Coral Pattern , " 

Fancy Bobbin Edging " 

The Serpentine Stitch 112 

The Angular Stitch " 

The Horse-Shoe Stitch " 

Honey-Combing tt 

Chap. II. — Miscellaneous Instructions 113 

Binding u 

Braiding 114 

Marking " 

Piping " 

Plaiting " 

Biassing fe 



CONTENTS. Vll 

Pago 

Tucks l ]f 

Making Buttons 

u 
Night Gowns 

A Dress Scarf 1 16 

A Plain Scarf 1 17 

An Indian Scarf 

Chemises 1 18 

Shirts 119 

Gentlemen's Frocks 120 

Lady's Flannel Waistcoat 

Bustles or Tournures 12 * 

Aprons 

Dress Aprons * 22 

Vandyke Aprons 

Apron for a Young Person 123 

A Morning Apron 

Girl's Apron 

Bathing Gown 

Caps 124 

Gentlemen's Belts 

Chap. III.— Millinery I 25 

Collars and Capes 13 ° 

Turbans 

Chap. IV. — Dress-Making - 131 

Instructions in Cutting out a Dress 

Mantelet 142 

Lady's Silk Cloak " 

Boy's Cape or Cloak 145 

Dressing Table Covers " 

Pincushion Covers 146 

Dinner Napkins u 



Till CONTENTS. 

KNITTING, NETTING. AND CROTCHET WORK. 

Explanation of the Terms used in Knitting 151 

Four beautiful Patterns of Lace Edgings for Collars, 

Dresses. Sec 153 

A Baby r s Sock 156 

Babies Socks. 1st size 157 

Baby's Mufflers " 

Child's Sock, to be worn with Shoes 158 

Knee Caps in Lambs^-wool 159 

Evening Carriage Shoes " 

Plain Mittens 160 

Netted Mittens 162 

Lambs'-wool Muffatees " 

Driving Muffatees 163 

Corkscrew Muffatees u 

Fringe, No. 1 164 

Fringe. No. 2 " 

Herringbone Purse 165 

Another Purse " 

A Net Purse in Points " 

Corkscrew Netting for a Purse 168 

D'Oyleys 169 

Save-all Bag 170 

Moss Stitch, to make a thick bag u 

Double Knitting 171 

Double Blanket " 

A Gentleman : s Comforter. Double Knitting 172 

A Comfortable Comfortable u 

Double Knitted Shawl « 

Do. with Colored Border 173 

Pi: cushion Cover. Leaf Pattern " 

Knitted Keule Holder 174 



CONTENTS. IX 

Netted Curtain 175 

Netted Scarf " 

Treble Diamond Netting 176 

Single Diamond Netting 177 

Tuft Netting " 

Night Stocking " 

Another Night Stocking " 

To Knit a Quilt Stocking 178 

Twisted Column Quilt " 

Moss Stitch for a Quilt 179 

Imitation Coral " 

Insertion " 

Garters 180 

Ribbed Cephaline " 

Double Netting for a Mitten " 

Patterns for D'Oyleys, Basket, or Fish Napkins, and 

Purses 182 

Netted Lambs'-wool Shawl or Handkerchief 183 

Netted Sofa Tidy '•' 

To work the backs of Netted Mittens 184 

Feather Mitts " 

Cuffs, Peacock Stitch 185 

Netted Cuffs 186 

Gentlemen's Muffatees " 

A Pence Purse, or Jug 187 

Ladder Stitch Bag 188 

Netted Bag 189 

Striped Purse " 

Purse Stitch 190 

Bead Netting " 

Diamond Netting 191 

Border for a Table Cover 192 



X CONTENTS. 

Bordei and Fringe 192 

Leggings 193 

Night Cap :; 

Lambs'-wool Sleeve 194 

Baby's Lambs'- wool Cap 

Brioche, or Moorish Cushion .' " 

Single Crotchet Stitch 195 

Double Crotchet Stitch 196 

Plain Double Crotchet Stitch Purse 197 

j t Purse " 

s Cap 19S 

Shoe and Stocking Socks 199 

Another Top of Socks 200 

Socks, -without Shoe and Stocking 201 

Mitts with the Figure on the back of the Hand, and 

Holes inside and in the Thumb 203 

Piain Mitt 204 

A Pair of G\oves. large Men's size " 






THE LADY'S GUIDE 

TO 



/ 



EMBROIDERY AND APPLIOtJE; 

BSING 

Snstrnttinns Ik (iJmtimihq 



ON' 



SILK, VELVET, MUSLIN, LACE, MERINO, &o 
AND IN APPLIQUE, 

WTO ififteen aSeautffiUIs EnflwbeK patterns. 




(11) 



PREFACE. 

The taste for embroidery is daily increasing, and this 
species of work is not only ornamental but useful. In 
the following pages we have given instructions in all 
the most popular and beautiful modes of embroidering • 
and have endeavoured to express ourselves as explicitly 
as possible. 

The patterns which accompany those instructions, 
may not only be used in embroidering with Floss silks, 
worsted and chenille, but will be found equally beauti- 
ful when worked on muslin with white cotton. 

The art of embroidering with floss silk on satin, silk, 
or other materials, is exceedingly simple; and with but 
little practice, all of the patterns to be found in this book 
may be worked in such a manner as to present a neat 
and beautiful appearance. 

To embroider with cotton upon muslin much skil 
and care are required, but the work when finished is dura- 
ble and washes well. 

Applique is one of the most beautiful, and at the same 
time one of the easiest modes of embroidering, and may 
be worked with great rapidity. 

Embroidery on lace requires equal skill with embroi- 
dery on muslin, but the work when finished is so ex- 
quisitely beautiful that it well repays the trouble of the 
needle woman. 

o (13) 



Here the needle plies its busy task ! 
The pattern grows ; the well-depicted flower 
Wrought patiently into the snowy lawn, 
Unfolds its bosom; buds, and leaves, and sprigs, 
And curling tendrils, gracefully disposed, 
Follow the nimble fingers of the fair. 
A wreath, that cannot fade, of flowers that blow 
With most success when all besides decay. 

Cowraa 



(14) 



THE LADY'S GUIDE 

TO 

(£mbrotkrg antr Applique. 



CHAPTER I. 

EMBROIDERY WITH FLOSS SILK, THREE CORDED, OR 
saddler's SILK, CHENILLE, WORSTED, ETC. 

Floss silk is used to embroider on either silk, 
satin, merino, or any fine material which does not 
require washing. 

To embroider on cloth, fine flannel, or merino 
that is to be washed, it is necessary to use three 
corded, or saddler's silk. 

Chenille is sometimes employed in canvas work, 
but being one of the richest materials used in em- 
broidery it shows to the greatest advantage on vel- 
vet, silk, or satin. 

Worsted is used principally for embroidery on 
canvas ; but on fine merino, brown holland, and 
even white muslin, it is equally beautiful. The 
colours of German worsteds do not fade when 
washed with soap. 

A light and simple frame is the most convenient 

(15) 



16 EMBROIDERY 



s of emb 



for the above mentioned species of embroidery 
The frame should merely consist of four smooth 
pieces of light wood, half or three quarters of a 
yard in length, and quarter of an inch in thick- 
ness, neatly joined together. The frame should 
then be covered with ribbon or muslin wound 
tightly around it. To this muslin the material de- 
signed to be embroidered is to be sewed. Square 
frames are preferable. 

After the frame has been prepared the pattern to 
be embroidered should be drawn. If the material 
used is silk, or satin, or muslin, or any transparent 
substance, the pattern may be fastened on the 
wrong side, hung over a window pane, and traced 
upon the material with a lead pencil. When vel- 
vet, or cloth, or any dark coloured silk is to be em- 
broidered, the pattern should be drawn on white 
tissue or blotting paper, and the paper lightly 
tacked upon the right side of the velvet. The em- 
broidery is to be executed over the paper, and when 
the work is completed the paper is carefully torn 
away. Sometimes patterns are drawn on dark ma- 
terials by means of chalk, but the chalk is apt to 
rub off. 

After the pattern is drawn the work should be 
sewed into the frame in such a manner as to be 
perfectly smooth and even. It is not necessary 
that the frame should be of the same size as the 
material to be embroidered. If the stuff is wider 
or longer than the frame the portion over should be 
rolled up and covered with white paper. When 
the article is smaller than the frame a piece 01 



AND APPLIQUE. 17 

muslin may be sewed to the stuff so as to make it 
of the necessary size. 

For worsted work a rather coarse darning needle 
should be used, and for floss silk a fine one. A 
large round eyed needle is necessary for chenille 
and three corded silk. If the needle is too large, be- 
sides being clumsy, it will make a hole in the work. 

The stitch for embroidery is very easy. You 
make a knot at the end of the silk, chenille, or 
worsted, and bring your needle through the mate- 
rial on which you intend to work, from the under 
side to the upper one. Next, the needle is again 
put through to the under side, following the pat- 
tern, and then put back and brought to the upper 
side close to where it came through before. The 
same process is then repeated, care being taken 
not to draw the silk too tight. The stitches should 
lay slantingly and beside each other. To embroider 
the stalks of flowers a stitch very similar to back 
stitch should be used. 

We give a number of beautiful patterns for em- 
broidery in floss, chenille, &c. Amongst them 
borders of vines for aprons, cloaks, blankets for in- 
fants, bags, &c, and bouquets of flowers for the 
corners. They have been selected with great care, 
and will be found exceedingly beautiful when 
worked in colours. 

The way to embroider in the manner above de- 
signated, may be learned without further instruc- 
tions than those we have already given. The 
work when once understood is accomplished with 
great rapidity, and never becomes tedious. 
2* 




19 









V 





frv 



y 





29 




EMBROIDERY AND APPLIQUE. 31 



RAISED EMBROIDERY. 

This kind of embroidery is extremely pretty in 
fancy pieces, for working animals, birds, shells, 
fruits, or flowers. It may be done with either silk 
worsted, or chenille. The pattern must be traced 
and the material framed as usual ; then commence 
a foundation for the raised parts by working with 
coarse cotton or wool layer upon layer, with long 
stitches, until the outline of the design is closely 
approached, paying attention at the same time to 
the shape of the object. When this is finished be- 
gin the embroidery over it with a long needle, and 
shade in the usual manner, passing the needle 
through the whole substance of the foundation, 
which will the more easily be done should it be 
formed of wool. Fruit and shells may be most ad- 
mirably imitated by this mode of embroidery. This 
kind of raised embroidery may be done on canvas ; 
it may also be worked on holland and afterwards 
transferred. Wool and chenille may both be used, 
but it can be done with greatest perfection with 
silk. 

Flowers, such as roses, on a very reduced scale 
for sprig work, may be beautifully and easily exe- 
cuted in this description of embroidery. A small 
round must first be slightly raised with cotton ; 
then commence the centre of the rose with two or 
three small French knots, and form the flower by 
working round them in small stitches, keeping the 
middle of the darkest shades ; the stitches should 



32 EMBROIDERY 

partly cross each other, so as to give the appear 
ance of one leaf over another. If skilfully done 
the centre of the flower should have the sunken ap- 
pearance which it has in nature. If worked too 
large, their beauty and effect will be lost. Four 
shades of silk will be found sufficient. 



CHAPTER II. 

APPLIQUE. 

Applique is the laying of one material over an* 
other — as cloth, for instance, where one or more 
pieces of different shapes and colours, in the form of 
flowers or other figures, are placed on the surface 
of another piece which forms the ground, and are 
afterwards secured at their edges w T ith braids or 
cords. This style of work has been practised in 
some instances with so much taste and ingenuity, 
that it has rivalled embroidery, and for many Turk- 
ish designs seems almost preferable to any other 
kind. 

Applique may be composed of pieces of cloth, 
velvet, satin, silk, or leather, cut into the shape of 
flowers, leaves, scrolls, or other designs. The pat- 
tern should be drawn upon the material intended 
for the applique, and a corresponding one upon 
that forming the ground, which latter may also 



AND APPLIQUE. 33 

consist of either of the above materials. If vel- 
vet, satin, or silk, be used, it will be necessary to 
have a thin paper pasted at the back, before the ap- 
plique is cut out, which renders them firmer, and 
prevents their unraveling. These pieces are to be 
carefully tacked down on the material, and the 
edges worked with braid or cord, the colours of 
which may be varied according to taste ; but where 
flowers are represented, a braid, the colour of the 
flower or leaf, is to be preferred. The leaves may 
be veined with braid or cord, or with twisted silk ; 
and the centres of some flowers may be worked in 
French knots. Vine leaves are peculiarly adapted 
to this description of work, the tendrils of which 
may be formed of union cord or of chenille. 

For bags and folios a very pretty kind of ap- 
plique may be made, by using various coloured silks 
on a ground of cachemir or merino. Velvet ap- 
plique, edged with gold cord, on satin, or velvet, is 
also suitable for bags, slippers, sockets, caps, pil- 
lows, &c. Satin, edged with chenille, is sometimes 
used ; as also morocco leather, or kid stamped with 
designs in gold : when placed on satin, velvet, or 
cloth, the latter should be edged with gold braid or 
cord, and may be further enriched, by the margin 
of the leather being cut into scollops or Vandykes, 
and the gold cord twined into a circle at each point. 
For table covers, borders, ottomans, and other large 
pieces of work, a set pattern may be used with 
good effect when embroidery can be introduced into 
some of the compartments, giving it a very rich 
and Persian -like appearance. 



34 EMBROIDERY 

A beautiful description of applique, combined 
with embroidery, was much in vogue a few years 
since, particularly for handscreens, where the flow- 
ers and leaves were formed of velvet, and the 
stalks embroidered with gold bullion. Some of 
these fleurs defantaisie were made flat, others were 
raised by numerous small velvet leaves, carefully 
laid one partly over the other, and tacked down 
with a fine silk ; these leaves required to be accu- 
rately cut with a steel or punch or very sharp 
scissors. 



/ 
CHAPTER III. 

STITCHES IN EMBROIDERY ON MUSLIN AND LACE WORK 

Satin Stitch. — This resembles the threads in 
satin, and is much used in embroidery. You make 
a knot at the end of the cotton, silk, or worsted ; 
and bring it through the material on which you in- 
tend to work, from the under side to the upper one. 
Next, the needle is again put through to the under 
side, at about half an inch distance, and is then put 
back and brought to the upper side, about halfway 
from the first point, the next stitch is carried to the 
same distance from the second ; again the needle 
is brought back, and the same process is repeated. 
In working on a surface, the stitches run in paral- 
el lines to each other, and are taken the length-wav 



AND APPLIQUE. 35 

of the figure or subject you are making. They are 
also of unequal lengths, in order that the ground 
may be more effectually covered. In the working 
of drapery, you must be sure to take each stitch the 
way the threads or grain would naturally fall. 

Button-Hole Stitch. — The needle must go in 
on the wrong side, and be brought out on the right, 
five threads down. To make the stitch, the nee- 
dle is passed through the loop, before it is tight- 
ened or drawn close. 

Eyelet Holes. — These are first run round , 
then a hole is cut out, or made by a piercer, which 
is the preferable way ; and the needle is passed 
through the aperture, under the inner thread, and 
you sew round it thickly, so as to entirely conceal 
it. You may make oval eyelet holes in the same 
manner, making the opening oval, instead of round. 

Formation of Bars. — You take four threads of 
the muslin on the needle, and sew three times over 
them, passing the needle through the same opening 
each time, and drawing the four threads as close as 
possible. Each succeeding four threads are taken 
up the same way ; and thus the required number of 
bars can be easily formed. The thread in this 
stitch passes from bar to bar, on the right hand. 

Embroidery Feather Stitch. — Leaves are of- 
ten worked in this stitch, which is only an elonga- 
ted button-hole stitch. Its appearance, on a leaf, is 
very beautiful. 

Glover's Stitch. — This is the same as button- 
hole stitch, only each stitch is taken a little higher 
up than the one which preceded it. 



36 EMBROIDERY 

Double Button-Hole Stitch. — This is two 
stitches together, then the space for two left unoc- 
cupied, then the two button-hole stitches repeated, 
and so on alternately. 

Half Herrlng-Bone Stitch. — This is worked 
the cross way of the muslin ; four threads are 
taken on the mesh at once. 

Lines. — These are formed by drawing together 
six threads of the muslin, and sewing over them 
with fine thread, as close as possible. 

Straight Open Hem. — This is done by drawing 
out three or four threads, the selvage-way of the 
muslin, and working over the cross threads from 
side to side, in a kind of zigzag direction. 

Yeintng Open Hem. — This is worked in a curve, 
or other pattern, in which the threads cannot be 
drawn out. The hem is made by sewing over two 
threads, taken the angular way of the muslin, and 
then pursuing the same method with two threads 
taken the contrary way, and uniting them together 
as in a straight open hem. The appearance is the 
same, but the pattern is a curve or other shape. 

Chain Stitch. — This is often employed in lace 
work. Make a knot at the end of the cotton, and 
draw it through to the right side. While you put 
in the needle, let the end hang loose, and bring it 
"out below, so as to incline a little to the left hand ; 
pass the needle over the cotton, as you draw it out, 
and this will form a loop ; each succeeding one is 
done in the same manner. 

Pearling. — This is a kind of lace edging, not 



AND APPLIQUE. 37 

worked with needles, but often used as a finish to 
embroidery on muslin. It is very pretty, and is sold 
ready for use. 

Darning. — This is, when employed in lace-work, 
done as follows. It is worked as common darning, 
but with fine cotton, which is doubled ; and, in 
this stitch, the inner edge of flowers is sometimes 
worked, the centre being executed in half- herring- 
bone stitch. It looks well ; but rows of chain 
stitch, are, in our opinion, preferable. 

Interior Stitch. — So called, because often em- 
ployed to fill up the centres of leaves, in lace work. 
The stitch is formed by taking two threads the 
breadth-way of the leaf, and sewing over them ; 
then leaving a row of one thread, and sewing over 
two threads, as before. 

Eyelet Holes in Lace Work. — These are not 
difficult to execute, and when well arranged, have 
a beautiful appearance. One mesh of the net is 
left for the centre, and you work round it in but- 
ton-hole stitch. A great variety of devices may be 
formed, by a tasteful and judicious disposition of 
these eyelet holes. 

Spots on Net. — These, though simple, form an 
elegant variety in lace work. To make each spot, 
the middle is to be passed backwards and forwards, 
through one hole in the net, and alternately under 
and over two of the threads of which that hole is 
formed. These spots must be placed in clusters, 
but an open mesh must be left between each. 

Tambour Stitch. — This has a close resemblance 
4 



38 EMBROIDERY 

to chain stitch. The needle, which has a small 
hook at the end, and is fixed in a handle of ivory, 
is put through the material stretched in the frame, 
on the upper side, and the cotton being held under- 
neath, in the left hand, is put upon the hook and 
drawn through to the right or upper side, where it 
forms a loop. Through this loop the needle is 
again passed, and also thiough the material, a few 
threads from the place it passed through before. 
The cotton is again drawn through, and thus a suc- 
cession of loops is formed. The pattern is worked 
entirely in these loops or stitches. 

These are the stitches most commonly employed, 
and therefore the most necessary to be known. We 
have done all in our power to so explain them, as 
to enable our readers to practise them with facility. 



CHAPTER IV. 

EMBROIDERY ON MUSLIN. 

These species of embroidery are equally beautiful, 
but somewhat more tedious than embroidery with 
flosses, chenille, &c, on silk, satin, velvet, or 
other materials. A degree of skill which can only 
be acquired by practice, is necessary to those who 
would excel in this branch of the art. The w r ork 
must, of course, be done by pattern, and very beau- 
tiful ones may be purchased at a moderate cost. 



AND APPLIQUE. 39 

The material generally employed in working on 
muslin is cotton, of which there are two kinds most 
in request : Indian or Trafalgar, and English glaz- 
ed cotton. This latter can only be employed on 
work executed on a thin fabric. 

The pattern is placed against a window and 
drawn with a black lead pencil on the muslin. To 
secure accuracy the muslin should be tacked down 
to the pattern before the tracing is commenced. 

The outlines of the pattern are then run around 
with fine cotton, directly over the pencil marks. 
Then commence working in the usual embroidery 
stitch, taking care that the stitches do not lay over 
each other, but side by side, so as to give the work 
a smooth and even appearance. You must also 
press the work down a little with your finger, which 
will improve the evenness of its appearance, and 
tend to preserve it in its proper shape. Work the 
stalks over rather thick. A frame is not necessary. 



CHAPTER V. 

INSTRUCTIONS IN LACE WORK. 

In commencing this delicate and beautiful work, 
you must place over the net a piece of French cam- 
bric, proportionate in size to the subject, or de- 
rice, you are intending to work ; and under both 



40 EMBROIDERY 

these the paper pattern is to be placed, and secured 
by a tack at the edge, in its propei position. It is 
essential to remark, that though the design, as a 
whole, may be large, yet each part should be small j 
the introduction of large leaves, sprigs, or flowers, 
would greatly detract from that beauty of appear- 
ance, which is so essential to be preserved. Clus- 
ters of small flowers, or leaves, are proper orna- 
ments in this elaborately-wrought fabric. Having 
placed the materials and pattern, as directed, the 
outlines of the design are to be run round with cot- 
ton. This sewing must be done twice, and the run- 
ning thread be sewn over with fine cotton; the 
sewing to be moderately thick ; this will give the 
extreme edge of each leaf or flower, a raised ap- 
pearance ; a point in this work, of most essential 
importance. The cambric is then, with a pair of 
small and sharp scissors, to be cut off, as near to 
the raised edge as possible. 

The annexed engraving shews the appearance 
the work will have when finished. 
This pattern is proper for lace, of 
a moderate breadth ; of course, the 
designs can be varied, and we strong- 
ly advise all who have a taste for 
W56>£A5tf?&! drawing, to improve it by designing 
new and elegant combinations ; they will thus be 
perfecting themselves in the art of design, while 
they are adding additional attractions to the ele- 
gant ornaments of attire. 

Another method of executing designs on net, for 
lace work, is by drawing out a pattern in leaves 





AND APPLIQUE. 41 

and flowers, and so working them as to appear in 
the manner represented in the en- 
graving. This is done by sewing 
round the edges of each leaf, &c., in 
glazed cotton, and on the inside 
of each, darning with fine cotton, 
doubled, leaving the centre of the flower vacant, 
which is afterwards to be worked in herring-bone 
stitch, extending from one side to the other. Some- 
times, instead of darning, the leaves are worked in 
chain stitch, which is done in rows to the extremity 
of the leaf, &c, and the cotton is turned back, and 
the process is repeated, until the whole space is 
occupied. In working in chain stitch, it will -be 
necessary to hold the cotton down with the left 
hand, while the loop is formed. This direction 
will be found of essential service if strictly attend- 
ed to. 

The various patterns are so numerous, that it is 
next to impossible to enumerate them. One beau- 
tiful variety is formed by filling up the centres of 
flowers with insertion stitch ; for the mode of doing 
which, the reader is referred to the chapter on stitch- 
es. Leaves and flowers thus filled up have a re- 
markably neat appearance. 

Sometimes the spaces in the net are filled up 
with clusters of spots, which are made b'y passing 
the needle in a backward and forward direction, 
through one mesh of the net, and over two threads 
of that mesh, alternately. These clusters look 
handsome, when executed with due care. It is al- 
so common to form sprigs or branches, by eyelet 
4* 



42 EMBROIDERY 

holes, formed according to the direction given in the 
first chapter. These may be either placed along 
a stem, or disposed in clusters of three. Either 
way they form a variety which produces a pleasing 
effect. 

This kind of embroidery is often employed in the 
preparation of veils, for bridal and other occasions, 
and for this purpose it is admirably adapted. In 
working a veil, you first obtain a piece of net, of 
the proper quality and dimensions. You then 
work a small running pattern of the most attractive 
and elegant combination of sprigs and flowers you 
can procure, or invent, quite close to the edge ; this 
is to go all round the veil. Within this border, at 
the lower part, a rich broad piece of work, in large 
clusters of small leaves, &c, is to be executed, and 
the veil is to be finished with pearling, set on the 
edges, which gives a beautiful finish to the whole. 
It is not difficult to execute these veils, and when 
finished with proper care and attention, it is not 
easy to distinguish them from the admired fabric 
they are intended to represent. 

This is the kind of lace work generally practis- 
ed ; but as some ladies may be desirous of making 
what is called bobbin lace, we shall briefly describe 
the process. You procure a pillow or cushion with 
bobbins, and a small table, having in the centre a 
square hole. In this hole revolves in a horizontal 
manner, a wooden cylinder, which is wrapped 
round with linen several times, and stuffed with 
wool. On this pillow the pattern is fixed, by which 
the lace is to be worked. The pattern consists of a 



AND APPLIQUE 43 

piece of parchment, having the outline of the de- 
sign drawn upon it, and the apertures, or meshes 
of the lace, are indicated by small holes pricked in- 
to the parchment. The drawing of the pattern is 
so managed that, when it is put round the pillow, 
and the ends united, it runs on in an uninterrupted 
continuity. The number of bobbins required, are 
regulated by the pattern of the lace, and the num- 
ber of threads on the bobbins on which they are 
wound ; and each is furnished with a small handle, 
by which the threads are to be twisted, and in oth- 
er ways interwoven in the work. On each bobbin 
the thread is held by a small collar of bone, in the 
side of which a slit is made, so as to open slightly. 
When tins collar is subjected to a little pressure it 
holds the thread on the bobbin, but not so as to 
prevent its motions, the pressure of the collar be- 
ing elastic. A knot is made at the end, and thus 
all the threads are united at the commencement ; 
and the lace is formed by causing them to cross each 
other, twisting two or three of them together, and 
in various other ways confining them. This por- 
tion of the work is very intricate, and cannot be 
learnt by any mere description ; but it is easy 
enough to execute, when a few lessons have been 
given by a competent and practical teacher. 

In order to form the meshes of the net, the wor- 
ker must be furnished with a sufficient number of 
brass pins, which she places on the pillow in a row, 
corresponding with the holes on the parchment. 
Round these pins the threads are passed, or en- 
twined, by throwing the bobbins from side to side, 



44 EMBROIDERY 

and so twisting the threads as to form the meshes. 
When one row is thus completed, another row oi 
pins is stuck in the cushion, close by the meshes 
previously formed. Another row is then made ; 
the first pins are removed, and stuck in as before ; 
and thus the process continues until the required 
length is obtained. As the work proceeds, the pil- 
low revolves on its centre, and as the lace becomes 
finished, it deposits itself in a drawer in the table, 
prepared to receive it. As the making of the net 
proceeds, the flowers, &c, are interwoven into it, 
which is effected by a minute crossing of the fine 
threads of which it is composed, and an intermix- 
ture of others of a stronger texture, which form the 
outline ; and the whole of the design is executed 
by means of the pins which are placed in their 
proper situations, and act as guides to the intertwin- 
ing of the threads. Two or three lessons from a 
practical worker, combined with the directions here 
given, will enable any lady to work this kind of 
lace in any pattern she chooses. 

One other kind of lace work demands our atten- 
tion before we dismiss this portion of our subject. 
Book muslin is sometimes worked into an imita- 
tion of lace, by placing it under net, and then lay- 
ing both over a paper pattern, the same as when 
working with French cambric. You then run round 
the outline of every part of the design ; and the 
running thread may be either sewn over, or work- 
ed over in button-hole stitch. In most cases the 
latter method is preferable. You are then to cut 
off the external edge of the muslin, and your work 



AND APPLIQUE. 45 

will present a truly handsome appearance. The 
remarks, as to the smallness of each portion of the 
design, do not apply here, as this is not intended 
to represent Brnssels point lace. You may work 
each part, as well as the complete design, as large 
as your judgment tells you is compatible with an el- 
egant and simple neatness. 

It may be necessary to observe, that the lady 
who is intending to engage in working a pattern 
in lace, will do well to consider before she finally 
adopts her design. Let her examine as many de- 
vices as she may have an opportunity of doing ; 
and use her best judgment in so blending separate 
parts, as to have a connected and harmonious 
whole. 



CHAPTER VI. 

EMBROIDERY IN GOLD THREAD. 

This kind of embroidery is usually employed m 
large and bold designs, as it is never used, except 
in cases where much display and extreme brillian- 
cy are required. The materials made use of as 
foundations for these costly displays of needle work 
are various, according to the taste of the wearer, or 
the occasion on which they are employed. Crape, 
India muslin, or some kind of silk, are generally 
employed, as the best calculated to give the desired 



46 EMBROIDERY 

effect, and to exhibit the beautiful devices to the 
best possible advantage. The gold thread should 
be of a fine and uniform texture, and little or no 
difficulty will be found in working it. When it is 
properly made, it is almost as flexible as common 
thread. 

The stitch in which gold thread embroidery is 
worked is (with occasional exceptions) satin stitch, 
and, of course, you work by a pattern previously 
prepared. This must be laid under the material 
used as a foundation, and which is generally suffi- 
ciently transparent to allow it to be seen through 
it, and the outline of the subject intended to be 
worked, is sewn on in white thread. This done, 
you commence working in gold thread, or with sil-> 
ver, but this latter is not desirable, as it soon gets 
black and tarnished. Gold thread is much superi- 
or, both in its appearance and durability. In some 
cases it is proper to omit the running thread ; as 
for example, in working a slender stalk to a flower; 
in this case, gold thread should be run in and then 
sewn over slightly with another thread of gold ; 
this will give it a spiral appearance, which looks 
surpassingly beautiful. 

In working you can introduce a great variety in- 
to the pattern, by the insertion of short pieces of 
bullion, or fine gold twist. Two or three of these 
may be made to come out of the cup of a flower, 
and in various other ways. In order to fasten them 
on properly, you pass the stitch lengthway of the 
bullion, through the twist, which causes it to lie 
flat on the foundation. Stars of every conceivable 



AND APPLIQUE. 47 

form may be thus made, and their brilliant beauty 
cannot be described ; they must be seen to be pro- 
perly appreciated. The centres of flowers may be, 
and often are, formed of bullion ; but in that case 
the stitch does not pass through the twist its full 
length, but is shorter, so that the middle of the bul- 
lion is depressed, and the extremities elevated ; or 
the stitch may be passed through both ends of the 
piece of bullion, and being drawn rather tight, a 
slight prominence, or expansion, will be given to 
the middle ; both these methods produce a beauti- 
ful effect. 

This kind of ornamental embroidery is especially 
well adapted for the lower parts of dresses, and 
robes of state. It is not necessary that the whole 
of the work should be wrought in gold thread ; silk, 
of a colour that will blend well with it, is often in- 
troduced, and produces the most beautiful varieties. 
Only silk of one colour should be introduced into 
this kind of work ; more would destroy the harmo- 
ny of contrast, which must by all means be pre- 
served. As an example, we may mention that silk 
of a bright green harmonizes well with the gold ; 
a green branch, or sprigs, mingled with flowers 
formed of gold thread and bullion is, perhaps, one 
of the most chaste and tasteful combinations of silk 
and gold, that can be presented to the eye. 

We have said that only silk of one colour should 
be introduced in combination with gold thread. 
There is, however, one exception to this rule. In 
working a crest, or coat of arms, the heraldric ar- 
rangement of metals and colours must be adhered to 



48 EMBROIDERY 

with the most scrupulous fidelity. Here you must 
have silk of as many hues as are to be found in the 
arms, when properly emblazoned ; and great care 
must be taken in working devices in imitation of 
arms, but which have not been arranged by the 
Herald's College, never to place a metal upon a 
metal, or a colour upon a colour. To be guilty of 
such a mistake, would be to display an entire igno- 
rance of the laws which regulate heraldric devices. 

Tulle is occasionally employed as a material in 
which to work clusters of flowers, or sprigs in gold 
and silver thread. This fabric, when thus worked, 
forms a rich and beautiful embroidery. The devi- 
ces are worked by running round the outlines of 
each leaf, or flower, with gold thread, darning the 
centre of the exterior leaves, or flowers, or working 
them in chain stitch, and filling them up in the mid- 
dle with half herring-bone stitch, in the same man- 
ner as a preceding pattern is directed to be worked. 
Devices in satin stitch can be embroidered on this 
material ; and it is also employed by some ladies, 
as the foundation for tambour work, and is found 
to answer exceedingly well. 

In this brilliant and costly production of female 
skill and industry, spangles are often employed 
with the prettiest effect. When introduced, great 
care should be taken to secure them properly, and 
at the same time to conceal the thread by which 
they are fastened to the material. This is no easy 
task ; but by attending to the following directions 
it may be done effectually. The thread, by means 
of which they are to be fastened, is to be brought 




VALERIA MANTELET. 



Taffetas— Application of Passementeries with Fringe formed into groups. 



AND APPLIQUE. 49 

from the under side and passed through the small 
hole in the centre of the spangle ; the needle is 
next to be passed through a very small piece of bul- 
lion, and then put through the hole back again 
Thus the unsightly appearance of a thread across 
the face of the spangle is avoided, and it is both 
improved in appearance, and prevented from be- 
coming disengaged from the device it was intended 
to adorn. 

Though not immediately connected with this de- 
partment of needle work, perhaps a passing notice 
of the kind of embroidering called print work, may 
not be unacceptable. The material on which this 
kind of work is done is white silk, or satin, which 
is first stretched in a frame, and then has the de- 
signs drawn upon it. It is used principally, though 
not exclusively, for small subjects, and the stitches 
employed are of the utmost minuteness. You first 
sketch the intended device with pencil, and then 
work it in black silk ; or in some cases you can em- 
ploy silk of various shades, but not colours ; a lead, 
or pale slate colour, is as proper as a jet black. You 
must work with a very fine needle, and you can im- 
itate a dotted engraving in this kind of needlework, 
so as almost to defy detection. The stitch, is that 
called marking stitch, and is set as thick as may 
be, without bringing one over another. In work- 
ing an imitation of an engraving, you begin on the 
darkest shades, which are done with black silk, and 
thence you gradually proceed to the lightest tints, 
with silk of the most appropriate and best harmon- 
izing shades, blending them into each other with 
5 



50 EMBROIDERY 

the nicest care. To accomplish this, in those parts 
where it is necessary to introduce the lighter por- 
tions, you set the stitches wide apart, and fill up 
the intervals by putting in the lightest tint required. 
You must on all occasions, have the engravings be- 
fore you, as memory is, in reference to lights and 
shades, only a treacherous guide. Line engravings 
may be imitated in the same way, but the stitches 
must be longer, and more widely separated from 
each other. 

We have thus endeavoured to afford the fullest 
instructions which our limits would permit, in re- 
ference to the practical performance of one of the 
most delightful employments that can engage the 
attention of a leisure hour. We have sought to 
impart such an acquaintance with general princi- 
ples as is, in our opinion, essential to a successful 
prosecution of these delicate and truly feminine 
pursuits , and we have at the same time, gone so 
minutely into details, as may, with a few excep- 
tions, enable any young lady who feels sufficient 
interest in the subject, as to give it a due share of 
attention, to become her own instructress, and thus 
to secure an accomplishment, she might not oth- 
erwise be able to possess. In all that the young 
needle woman takes in hand, let the attainment of 
r.xe^Iteice be her first and constant aim. 



AND APPLIQUE. 51 

CHAPTER VII. 

EMBROIDERY FOR INSERTION. 

Embroidery is often done upon muslin in nar- 
row stripes, for insertion work, and looks extreme- 
ly pretty. Almost any device, but chiefly foliage 
and flowers, and sometimes fruit, are proper for this 
kind of work, and any or all of- the various stitch- 
es may be introduced with the happiest effect. It 
is unnecessary to give examples, as they would on- 
ly tend to confuse and mislead. Every lady must 
use her own judgment in these cases, and be guided 
in l?er choice by the use to which the insertion work 
is td be applied. In all patterns for this kind of 
embroidery, there must be a hem stitch on each 
side cf the embroidery, the manner of forming 
which, is fully explained \ in the following descrip- 

tion *. Yl . £ 

It is cT^ne either in a straight line, or in a curve. 

For the finst kind you draw out threads to the 
breadth of a narrow hem, at a little distance from 
the row of insertion work previously executed. 
The number of threads thus drawn out should not 
exceed four x which are to be taken up on the nee- 
dle, commencing on one side, and these are to be 
sewn over three times with very fine cotton. The 
threads are taken and sewn over singly, and when 
the thread has reached the opposite side, you take 
up four more of the cross threads and sew them over 
twice, thus uniting the eight together at the side op- 
posite to that one on which you commenced. Then 



52 EMBROIDERY 

sew the last four, three times over, as in the first 
stitch, and the thread will here again be found at 
the side on which you begin. You proceed in this 
manner to the end, and the open hem when thus 
worked, forms a kind of undulating wave, that 
looks elegant and appropriate. 

Sometimes it is found more suitable to work the 
open hem in curves. In this case it is called vein- 
ing, and is thus performed. You cannot draw the 
threads out as in straight open hem, you therefore 
commence on the angular, or bias way, and then 
on the contrary way, taking up two threads in the 
same manner, and uniting them together at one 
side, in the same way as in straight open hem. 
You sew over the two threads you took last, twice, 
and then passing over to the other side, repeat the 
operation as before. Straight open hem is often 
used with a pretty effect, in the borders of cambric 
handkerchiefs ; they should be previously hemmed 
with a moderately deep hem. Some persons work 
within the hem a border of small scollops, and in 
sert a small embroidered leaf or flower in the cen- 
tre of each. Indeed, the varieties of this charming 
work, and the purposes to which they can be ap 
plied, are almost beyond calculation. 



AND APPLIQUE. 53 

CHAPTER VIII 

MAXIMS FOR MEMORY. 

1. One of the principal advantages of regular 
employment, is the value which it is the means of 
affixing to a commodity, held by but too many in 
disesteem ; thus it is that Time becomes a cher- 
ished possession, and we are as opposed to its be- 
ing wasted, as though it were among our tangible 
goods. In truth it represents these latter, which 
only exist through a proper disposition of the mo- 
ments and hours at our command. In lieu of giv- 
ing to sleep and idleness more than its allotted por- 
tion, we rise betimes ; and, in the paths of cheerful 
industry, avoid those stingings of self-reproach which 
attend but too certainly on the sluggard. Thus is 
laid the foundation of desirable habits, which for the 
most part continue throughout life. Now in Fan- 
cy Needlework the light of day, and particularly 
the clear bright light of morning, is especially im- 
portant ; for both the accuracy of linear execution, 
and the proper choice of colour, can only be achiev- 
ed under such circumstances. We should indeed 
strongly advise our fair readers sedulously to avoid 
candle-light, not only with reference to the accura- 
cy of their work, but with a view also to the " good 
keeping" of that delicate organ, the eye. 

2. But not only is Time precious — it should also 
be divided and subdivided, so that each portion of 

5* 



54 EMBROIDERY 

the day may have its appointed task. A certair 
period should be devoted to (for instance") Rug 
work, another to Embroidery, &c.-; and then there 
should be intervals of relaxation or exercise. The 
latter is a very important consideration, for so fas- 
cinating is this accomplishment, that all is frequent- 
ly forgotten during the progress of some favourite 
subject; besides, the work will be all the better 
done for this temporary invasion upon occupations 
strictly sedentary, since new ideas and new ener- 
gies will be the result. 

3. In many departments of Fancy Needlework, 
great and unceasing care is requisite, in order to 
avoid faults which cannot afterwards be repaired. 
In cloth-work, for instance, be careful not to split 
the threads of the canvass. 

4. During the progress of your work, it is desi- 
rable thai you keep that portion still untouched, 
covered with tissue paper, or it will otherwise have 
a soiled appearance. There is nothing which more 
detracts from the beauty of the fabric than inatten- 
tion to this rule. 

5. Cut your wools into certain lengths, and put 
them into elongated papers, or you may wind them 
on a reel : although I do not recommend this latter 
plan, for in my own experience I have always found 
the winding deteriorates the texture. Eachpapei 
should be labelled with its peculiar shade, or it ma} 
be numbered. 

6. A knowledge of Drawing and Painting is oi 
great advantage, by its immediate bearing on the 
aim of this Art : although many persons who have 



AND APPLIQUE. 55 

scarcely any acquaintance with either, are extreme- 
ly clever with their needle. But in this case the 
exception proves. the rule. 

7. Plaid patterns may be worked from plaid rib- 
bons ; and in so doing the choice of elegant mate- 
riel will be as attainable as it is multifarious. 

8. The repositories at which coloured patterns 
may be obtained are very numerous. It was in 
1805 that a publisher in Berlin put forth the first 
Coloured Design on ruled paper. Madame Wit- 
tich followed in the same path in 1810 ; and now 
the number of persons engaged in this business is 
unaccountable. No fewer than 22,000 Designs 
have been published up to the present day. Eng- 
land is probably by far the largest consumer ; and the 
number of hands employed in colouring only is sup- 
i/osed to amount to 2,500. The Yarn, though dyed 
in Berlin, is manufactured at Gotha. Many have 
declared that the yarns manufactured in this coun- 
try are quite equal, if not superior, to those of Go- 
tha ; but then the art of dyeing them is by no means 
equally understood by us. This may appear as- 
tounding to those who are aware of the great pro- 
gress made by us in manufactures generally, and 
especially in the application of Chemistry to the 
improvement generally of our Dyes. 

9. When Beads are introduced, they should not 
be too numerous, or they will give an appearance 
of heaviness to the work. 

10. In using Floss Silk, it should be cut in short 
lengths, or it is apt to get round. 

11 The ladies in Germany are particular to buy 



,* 



56 MAXIMS. 

all their wools at the same time, so as to ensure the 
prevalence of the same shades. There are as ma- 
ny as one thousand different shades. Ladies of 
high rank in that country employ their leisure in 
executing Needlework for the shops. 

12. The improvement of Design in the Patterns 
and in the juxtaposition of their Colours, is a great 
desideratum. At present, Arabesques, partaking of 
the character of Crude Mosaics, are but too com- 
mon, and are chiefly remarkable for bright but in- 
harmonious colour and bad drawing. We counsel 
our fair friends to use all their skill and taste to 
bring about a reform in these fundamental depart- 
ments, which will materially tend to elevate Fancy 
Needlework to a close alliance with the higher 
branches of Art. 




xrfE LADY'S 

WORK-BOX COMPANION; 

BEING 

INSTRUCTIONS IN ALL VARIETIES 

OF 

CANVAS WORK: 

SSTftl) eTtocntg^ISfflljt ISnflcabetJ Specimen.*. 

"Come hither, come hither, thou forester bold, 
Come hither. Sir Maurice and see 
Where four fair maidens, in cloth of gold, 
Embroider thy victory." 



(67) 



PREFACE. 

Embroidering on Canvas, or Tapestry Work, has been 
the favourite employment of Queens and nobie ladies 
for ages. Among the Medes and Babylonians the dra- 
peries of apartments were carried to the greatest perfec- 
tion. Their palace hangings, carpets and cushions, were 
wrought with gold, silver, pearls, and other costly ma- 
terials. 

The use of Berlin patterns was first introduced in the 
year 1S00, and they are at this day more highly esteem- 
ed than ever. The force and delicacy of oil paintings 
may be very nearly approached by a neat execution of 
these patterns. 

All the principal stitches used in embroidering on can- 
vas have been explained and illustrated by engravings, 
in the following pages. After the stitches are once 
comprehended, the work is exceedingly simple. 

The work from which the present is chiefly com- 
piled, is dedicated to her Majesty Queen Victoria, and 
has run through a large number of editions. 

The volume to which we now call the attention of 
our American ladies contains a greater number of pat- 
terns than the English work, and more minute instruc- 
tions concerning the best modes of arranging frames, 
grounding, and choosing patterns, &c. A number of 
beautiful articles have also been mentioned that may 
be worked for presents, or to adorn the boudoirs of 
ladies. 

(59) 









!■'■' 








THE LADY'S 
tDork-Bo* (ttompanion 



CHAPTER I. 

PREPARATION OF FRAMES. 



This is a subject which must be carefully attend- 
ed to, or much unnecessary trouble will be incurred 
in consequence. 

TO DRESS A FRAME FOR CROSS STITCH. 

The canvas must be hemmed neatly round : then 
count your threads, and place the centre one exact- 
ly in the middle of the frame. The canvas must 
be drawn as tight as the screws or pegs will per- 
mit, and if too long, should be wrapped round the 
poles with tissue paper, to keep it from dust, and 
the friction of the arms, as that is essential to the 
beauty of the work. It must in all cases be rolled 
under, or it will occasion much trouble in the work- 
ing. When placed quite even in the frame, secure, 
6 (61) 






G2 THE LADY'S 

by fine twine passed over the stretchers and through 
the canvas, very closely ; both sides must be tight- 
ened gradually, or it will draw to one side, and the 
work will be spoiled. 

TO DRESS A FRAME FOR CLOTH WORK 

Stretch your cloth in the frame as tight as possi- 
ble, the right side uppermost. 

The canvas on which you intend to work must 
be of a size to correspond with the pattern, and must 
be placed exactly in the centre of the cloth to 
which it is to be secured, as smooth as possible. 
When the work is finished, the canvas must be cut, 
and the threads drawn out, first one way and then 
the other. It is necessary to be especially careful, 
in working, not to split the threads, as that would 
prevent them drawing, and would spoil the appear- 
ance of the work. In all cases, it is advisable to 
place the cloth so as that the nap may go down- 
ward. In working bouquets of flowers, this rule is 
indispensable. The patterns for cloth work should 
be light and open. It looks well for sofas, arm 
chairs, &c, but is by no means so durable as work 
done with wool entirely on canvas. 

TO DRESS A FRAME FOR TENT STITCH. 

Prepare the frame and canvas as for cross stitch, 
only not quite even, but inclining the contrary way 
to the slant of your stitch. This is necessary, as tent 
stitch always twists a little ; but when taken out of 
the frame, the work will appear tolerably straight 



WORK-BOX COMPANION 63 

Should it, after all, be crooked, it should be nailed 
at the edges to a square board, and the work may 
then be pulled even by the threads, so as to become 
perfectly straight. The back of the work should 
then be slightly brushed over with isinglass water, 
taking care not to let the liquid come through to 
the right side. A sheet of paper must be placed be- 
tween the work and' the board, and when nearly 
dry, another must be laid upon it, and the whole 
ironed with a warm iron, not too hot, or the bril- 
liancy of the work will be destroyed. 

Some persons use flour instead of isinglass, but it 
is highly improper, and should never be resorted 
to. 



CHAPTER II. 

MATERIALS FOR WORKING. 

Canvas (coarse) eighteen threads to the inch. 
Work in cross stitch with double wool. This is 
proper for a foot-stool, sofa-pillow, &c. 

Canvas (very coarse) ten threads to the inch. 
Work in cross stitch, over one thread, with single 
wool. If used for grounding, work in two threads. 
This will accelerate the work, and look equally 
well. 

Silk leaves. — If no grounding is required, work in 



64 THE LADY'S 

tent stitch. The pattern should be large in pro- 
portion to the fineness of the material. The 
finer the canvas, the larger the pattern. 

Colours. — An attention to shades is of the ut- 
most consequence, as on this, in an eminent de- 
gree, depends the perfection of the work. The 
shades must be so chosen, as to blend into each 
other, or all harmony of colouring will be de- 
stroyed. The colours must be more distinct in 
tent stitch than in cross stitch, or rather more 
strongly contrasted, especially in the dark shades 
of flowers ; without attention to this point, a good 
resemblance of nature cannot be obtained. 

Wool (English and German), white, black and 
various colours. Two, three, four, five, or six 
shades of each colour, as the nature of your work 
may require. The same observation applies to 
silk and cotton, in cases where those materials 
are used. 

Split wool for mosaic work. 

Silk. Split Silk. Floss. Half Twist. Deck- 
ers. China silk. Fine purse Silk. 

Cotton of various kinds. 

Gold Twist. Silver Thread. Chenille. 

Beads. Thick and transparent Gold. Bright 
and burnt steel. Silver, plated, &c. 

Perforated Cards. 

Canvas, called Bolting, for Bead work. 



WORK-BOX COMPANION. 



65 



CHAPTER III. 

STITCHES. 

1. TENT STITCH. 

This is accomplished over one thread the 
cross way, and should be done in a frame. 
In grounding, perform the work the bias 
way of the canvas, and work from left to 
The tyro cannot be too sedulous in the due 



acquirement of this elemental stitch. 



2. CROSS STITCH. 

Let the wool be put across two threads, 
and the needle down two, working the 
cross way, and finishing as the work pro- 



5. STRAIGHT CROSS STITCH. 




ZS2CC 


>J r 



































gresses. 



I 



m 






HH 



a 



j± 



This stitch is the same as Cross Stitch, 
but is worked the straight way of the 
canvass ; and although on coarse can- 
vas, has a very pleasing and finished 
appearance. We have before us a flower-piece, 
fresh as from the pencil of Carl du Jardin, the 
grounding of which is done in this stitch, and the 
flowers have an admirable effect. 

It is but too much the error of amateurs in Nee- 
dlework to suppose that flowers cannot be repre- 
6* 



66 



THE LADY'S 



sented in colours too distinctly bright ; but this is 
scarcely to be wondered at, when the examples of 
artists in oil and water-colours of the present day 
are so pernicious on this very score. 

4. WINDSOR STITCH. 

Pass the wool over 
six threads straight, 
and six threads down, 
which will present a 
square when the sec- 
ond row is completed. 
The pattern A-la-Van- 
dyck may be rendered 
very beautiful by a ju- 
dicious choice of colours, and of gold and steel 
beads, forming central points in particular shades. 
In making bags, a tasteful border should be added. 
It is desirable that, in contrasting colours, every 
third interposed should partake of the hues of those 
on either side. 





5. PAVILION STITCH. 

Four threads having been taken 
j#i straight down, bring the needle down 
one thread ; after that take two threads, 
then four, as before, and finish the row. 
Commence the second row with a 
stitch in two threads, then take four, 
and so proceed. Gold beads tasteful- 
ly introduced have a very pretty effec f 



WORK-BOX COMPANION. 



67 



6. JOSEPHINE STITCH. 

This is a very pretty stitch for bags 
with gold or silver braid, and is executed 
in stripes from the bottom to the top 
Take six threads straight, and proceed 
to the end of the row ; after which take 

three lengths of braid, and work one of them in 

Cross Stitch, diamond fashion. 





7. BERLIN STITCH. 

Work this stitch in- a scollop, 
taking six threads straight 
down. Much of the beauty of 
it depends upon the contrast of 
colour (having an eye to har- 
mony) in the threads. The 
effect should be ascertained be- 
fore beginning to work. 






8. CZAR STITCH. 

We have heard this called Economic 
Stitch. It is worked over from six or 
eight threads in depth, and two in width, 
crossed from right to left. Gold thread 
should be interposed between each row 



68 



THE LADY'S 



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i if in - >■ 


==: n rimf 



9. IRISH STITCH. 

Four, six, or eight threads are to be 
taken straight, two threads being left 
between. The second row is to be be- 
2^un four threads up, between the two 
threads left on the former row, and ; n 
working the third row, take care that 
the stitches meet the first row. This 
is a valuable stitch, easily worked in- 



to a variety of pretty forms. 




in the same 

what colours are chosen. 



10. WILLOW STITCH. 

This is sometimes called Basket 
Stitch, and is effected by placing 
the needle straight down six threads. 
As you finish the sixth stitch, take 
out the needle at the third thread, 
and cross it over the centre. On 
doing other six stitches, cross over 
manner, and so on. It is indifferent 




11. LONG PLAIT. 

Begin by taking twelve threads straight ; 
work six stitches, slip the needle down- 
ward half-way, and then begin another 
stitch. If striped with gold or silver thread 
at intervals, where the stitches meet, the 
effect is very striking. 



WORK-BOX COMPANION. 



69 




12. FEATHER STITCH. 

This is done over twelve threads, from 
left to right, in the same way as Tent 
Stitch, the next row being turned so as 
to represent the semblance of a feather. 
The centre is usually stitched up with 
gold, silver or silk thread. 



13. STITCH 




required depth. 




A LA VANDYCK. 

Twelve threads are taken 
across, and reduced two 
threads each stitch, till 
the width agrees with the 



14. POINT STITCH. 




Ten threads must be taken straight 
down the canvas, and as many in the 
next stitch opposite. 

15. SQUARE PLAIT. 



The length-way of the canvas 
take ten threads deep, and work 
ten stitches straight ; then work 
ten threads the width of the can- 
vas, and so continue. For the full 
display of this stitch, bright colours 



should be placed in opposition. 




THE LADY S 



16. GOBELIN STITCH. 

Take two threads in height, and one in 
width. 

Many beautiful specimens may be seen at 
the Annual Exhibition of the Aubusson 
Tapestry. 
This stitch formed over Card or Straw placed be- 
tween two threads of the canvas, has a very pretty 
effect. Shades of the same colour in Vandykes, 
whether dark blue and gold, scarlet and green, 
azure and lilac, &c. have a charming effect in bags 
of different colours. 






1 t rv\Nlvkkk 


.'TWi/Vut i r " 








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ililP- 






















luii 






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17. PERSPECTIVE STITCH. 

Twelve threads having been 
counted the cross way, take the 
needle out with two threads at 
the top ; proceeding after this 
fashion to take seven stitches, 
finishing with any appropriate 
colour, and filling in witk silk. 





A STAR. 

Six threads must be taken four oppo- 
site ways, and after that four stitches 
between a bead in the centre of each. 
The stars should be judiciously varied 
in colour, and worked in silk canvas. 



WORK-BOX COMPANION. 



71 



19. VELVET STITCH. 

Three rows are to he worked downwards of Cross 
.Stitch, leaving four threads. Three rows more 01 
Cross Stitch are then to be executed ; and so pro- 
ceed till it is finished. Over the space that is left, 
work (over strips of whalebone) with four threads, 
Economic Stitch double crossed at each end, and 
cut down the centre with a pen-knife. This has 
the effect of velvet in lines, and is very elegant. 

20. SERPENTINE STITCH. 

This is sometimes called Spiral Stitch, and is ex- 
ecuted by taking five threads straight ; after that, 
five stitches on two ascending threads ; then one 
stitch on nine ascending threads, and five as before. 
In descending, take five stitches on two threads, one 
stitch on nine, five on two ascending, five descend- 
ing, and so on to the end. The fifth stitch is the 
top stitch of each row. 

21. DOUBLE STAR. 




Stitch on two threads crossway, 
twenty-two stitches square, on silk 
canvas. Taking eight threads 
each way, commence the star 
in the centre. Bright colours are 
desirable, with a brilliant centre 
of silver, gold, or steel beads. 



72 



THE LADY'S 



22. CROSSED LONG STITCH. 

Ten or twelve threads deep must 
be taken, and worked to the re- 
quired width of canvas. Continue 
the next row in the same manner, 
and with gold or silver thread, 
cross every eight or twelve stitches 
throughout the pattern. 
The introduction of gold and silver thread has a 
surprisingly beautiful effect, provided the substrata 
of colour are such as to give it relief. Gold allies 
well with green ; silver with blue or purple. The 
more vivid tints may be approximated by the shades 
of colour introduced between them. 





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HHI^I: 


iffpTF 


tBTpCP- 


TrTfrt 


TFTrT - 


. ! Mil 


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23. FANCY STITCH. 

Over any number of threads take 
five stitches, reverse the canvas, 
and work other five to meet them ; 
which leaving a space of canvas 
of diamond form, rich coloured 
silk can be tastefully filled in. 



24. LACE STITCH. 

This is one of the most beautiful in the whole 
range of stitches, and is commonly executed in 
black Chantilly silk, both in cross stitch and in 







ii 1 1 1 1 




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ty//-// \- r J \ 














illB 
















-ft 




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WORK-BOX COMPANION. 



73 



■ ■■■■■■I - *3§ . - 

&%B?A%Ktt*%'smaEa. 
* ■:■ :"X<a »*ia3S -'Sa 



straight stitch, so as to anive at a 
sort of dice pattern, and the edge 
is finished in wool in cross stitch. 
A resemblance to a pearl edge is 
given by taking two threads straight 
beyond the pattern. 




25. PRINCESS STITCH. 

You must begin with two threads, 
and increase two each way till 
fourteen threads are covered ; af- 
ter which commence again on two 
threads, and increase to fourteen 
as before. Variety of colour should be alternated. 

26. HOHENLINDEN STITCH. 

Begin by taking eight threads down the canvas 
and increase the stitches one thread each way up 
to twelve threads \ after which decrease to eight. 
Proceed thus : the second row being commenced 
with twelve threads which meet the long stitch in 
the first row. After this, the diamond space which 
remains must be worked in gold-coloured silk, eith- 
er as plate, or in an opposite direction to the first 
row. 

To a German Princess, as remarkable for hei 
beauty as for those amiable traits which captivated 
one of the bravest and most accomplished men oi 
his day, we must refer the invention of this — the 
Hohenlinden Stitch. 



74 



THE LADY'S 



27. CANE PATTERN. 




Ten threads being taken across the can- 
vas, leave one thread between each stitch 
to the end of the row. After this, take 
four rows of Irish Stitch down the canvas 
in shaded colours, which may be varied 
throughout. 

The rapidity with which this stitch can 
be worked, and the finish and neatness of 
its general effect, render it one of the most 
useful employed. Its narrowness is suggestive of 
that kind of bordering which would interfere least 
with the bolder and more massive character of sub- 
jects forming the central portions of the work. 

28. SUTHERLAND STITCH. 

This Stitch has a very 
charming effect worked as 
plate, with beads in the spa- 
ces worked with gold or sil- 
ver thread. Having taken 
twelve threads the width of 
your canvas, reduce a stitch 
one thread each way for six 
rows, the last being on one 
thread. Proceed thus, executing the next row in 
the same manner, the stitch being the long way oi 
the canvas. 




WOFK-BOX COMPANION. 



75 



29. DARMSTADT PATTERN. 




Take one stitch straight over 
two threads, increasing two 
threads each way until six 
threads are covered : the needle 
must be taken out at the centre 
of the last stitch. Now take 
four threads, increase to six — decrease — form a di- 
amond ; and work up the space in its centre with 
silver or gold thread, or s-teel beads. 

It is scarcely possible to form a conception of the 
effect produced by this pattern when the colours 
are skilfully selected, unless it be seen on a larger 
scale. 

30. PALACE PATTERN. 

For this very pretty pattern, one 
stitch must be taken over two threads, 
the long way of the canvas, one 
thread being increased each way until 
eight threads are crossed, — then de- 
crease to two threads. Proceed in the 
same way for the next diamond, fill- 
ing in the spaces with silk in bright 
colours. 
This is one of those designs which 
never wearies the eye, possessing within itself great 
variety of outline ; and so natural is its arrange- 
ment, that notwithstanding the angularity of its 
character, it never offends by the obtrusiveness ol 
one portion over another. 



_L_ — Lr i J r 



76 THE LADY'S 



3. PLAID PATTERNS. 




These are copied from ribbons, and worked in 

cross stitch. 

32. DIAMONDS. 

Two threads are taken across 
the canvas, increasing one each 
way to fourteen, and decreasing 
similarly, progressing through- 
out in the same way. For the 
next row two threads are to be 
taken down the canvas, increas- 
ing and decreasing alternately. Finish with steel, 
silver, or gold beads, or all three. 

33. ROULEAU EDGING. 

Procure a " Roulea'i fork," wind the wool six- 
teen times round, take it off and fasten it by a stitch 
of wool. Ends of twine being fixed to a leaden 
cushion, the bows are placed between them, and 
are confined in their position by tying the strings. 

Our Parisian neighbours have the art of varying 
the effect of this kind of edging with surprising 
taste. No people are more skilful in the juxtapo- 
sition of colours, which may arise from the facility 
which they enjoy for seeing the best works of art 

Algerine Work. — This work much resembles a 
Venetian carpet, but is finer ; it looks best clone in 



WORK-BOX COMPANION. 77 

very small patterns. It is worked over cotton 
piping cord, the straight way of the canvas ; the 
stitches are over three threads. You work as in 
raised work, putting the colours in as you come to 
them, and counting three stitches in width as one 
stitch, when you are working Berlin patterns. The 
proper canvas is No. 45, and the cord No. 00. It 
is proper for table mats, and other thick kinds of 
work. 

To Fill up Corners. — Work in any stitch you 
prefer, and shade in accordance with the subject. 
In these, and ornamental borders, &c, there is much 
room for the development of taste and judgment. 
In all that you undertake, it will be well for you to 
recollect that nothing is lost by taking time to think. 




78 THE LADY'S 



CHAPTER IV. 

SPECIAL INSTRUCTIONS FOR WORKING ON CANVAS. 

Instructions in Grounding. — Care must be 
taken in grounding to make the effect of contrast 
very conspicuous. Thus, if you ground in dark 
colours, your pattern should be worked in shades 
of a light and lively tint ; for those in which dark 
shades predominate, a light ground is indispensable. 
The canvas for white grounding should be white, 
and if for dark grounding, a striped fabric is em- 
ployed ; the stripes will sometimes appear through 
the wool. To prevent this it will be necessary to 
rub over the surface with a little Indian ink water, 
previous to commencing working, but care must be 
taken not to let the mixture run into the edge of 
the work, and it must be quite dry before you com- 
mence grounding. A camel's hair brush is best for 
this purpose. In working in cross stitch, it is best 
to do so on the slant, working from right to left 
across the canvas, and then back again. This is 
preferable to crossing each stitch as you proceed, 
and gives an improved appearance to the work. If 
you work in tent stitch, work straight, or your per- 
formance will be uneven when taken out of the 
frame. In all cases, begin to ground from the cen- 
tre, and work outwards, taking care to fasten off as 
you finish with each needleful, which should not be 



WORK-BOX COMPANION. 79 

too long, as the wool is liable to get rough and 
soiled. It is also necessary to have them irregular 
as to length, to prevent the fastenings coming to- 
gether, which they will be apt to do, if this sug- 
gestion is not attended to. For working in tent 
stitch with single wool, the canvas must not have 
more than fourteen threads to an inch ; for cross 
stitch you must have a canvas not coaiser than 
twenty-two threads to an inch ; for the former, you 
will for every two and a half square inches require 
a skein of wool ; in the latter case a skein will 
cover two inches. Following this calculation, you 
can easily ascertain the quantity of wool required 
for any piece of work, and it is advisable to pur- 
chase all your wool at the same time, otherwise you 
will have much trouble in matching the shades. 
An attention to these instructions will soon make 
you a proficient in the grounding department of the 
art. 

Working Figures. — This is at once one of the 
most difficult, and at the same time one of the most 
pleasing tasks, which the votary of fancy needle- 
work will have to perform ; they generally produce 
the best effect, when worked in wool and silk, with 
a judicious mixture of gold and silver beads. The 
hair and drapery should be worked in cross stitch ; 
and the face, neck, and hands, in tent stitch ; work- 
ing four of the latter, for one of the former. To 
obtain the proper tints for the face, &c, is no easy 
task ; but it must be carefully attended to, as al- 
most the whole beauty of the work depends upon 
>t. The shades, in these parts of the Sgure, must 



80 THE LADY'S 

be extremely close ; indeed upon the shading of the 
features, the perfection of the performance mainly 
depends. The drapery also demands considerable 
care : the shades must be very distinct, particu- 
larly the lighter ones, in the folds of the dress ; and 
the back ground should be subdued, as much as 
possible, that a proper prominence may be given to 
the figure ; this object will be aided considerably, 
by working in the lighter shades in silk ; and re- 
presentations of water, or of painted glass, should 
be worked in the same material. The intention of 
the fair worker should be to give to her perform- 
ance as near an approximation to oil painting as 
possible. 

Raised Work. — This should be done with Ger- 
man wool, as it more nearly resembles velvet. For 
working flowers, you must have two meshes, one- 
seventh of an inch in width, and the pattern must 
be worked in gobelin stitch. Be careful not to 
take one mesh out, until you have completed the 
next row. You work across the flowers ; and in 
order to save an unnecessary waste of time, as well 
as to facilitate your work, it will be best to thread 
as many needles as you require shades, taking care 
not to get the various shades mixed together. This 
is the more needful, as you cannot, as in cross stitch, 
finish one shade before commencing another. — 
When the pattern is worked, cut straight across 
each row, with a pair of scissors suitable to the 
purpose, and shear the flower to its proper form. 

For working animals or birds, you must have 



WORK-BOX COMPANION. 81 

three meshes ; the first, one quarter, and the third 
one seventh of an inch ; the second must be a me- 
dium between these two. You will require the 
largest for the breast, and the upper parts of wings. 
Cross stitch may be employed in working the beak, 
or feet, and is indeed preferable. You can work 
leaves, either in cross stitch or in gobelin stitch, as 
taste or fancy may direct. You may work either 
from a drawing on canvas, or from a Berlin pat- 
tern, but the latter is decidedly to be preferred. 

Working Berlin Patterns. — For these pat- 
terns, it will be necessary to work in canvas of 
eighteen or ten threads to the inch, according as 
you may desire the work to be larger, or of the 
same size as the pattern. And it must be borne in 
mind that all the patterns are drawn for tent stitch, 
so that if you work in cross stitch, and wish to 
have it the same size as the pattern, you must count 
twenty stitches on the canvas, for ten on the paper. 
The choice of colours for these patterns is a matter 
of essential importance, as the transition from shade 
to shade, if sudden and abrupt, will entirely destroy 
the beauty of the design. A natural succession of 
tints, softly blending into each other, can alone pro- 
duce the desired effect. In working flowers, five or 
six shades will be required; in a rose, or other 
large flower, six shades are almost indispensable ; 
of these, the darkest should form the perfect cen- 
tre, then the next — not prominently, though per- 
ceptibly — differing from it, and then the next four 
to the lightest tint ; the whole to be so managed as 



82 THE LADY'S 

to give to the flower that fulness and distinctness 
which its position in the design demands. For 
small flowers, so many shades are rarely necessary. 
The two darkest shades should be strong, the others 
soft; this secures sufficiency of contrast, without 
impairing that harmony of tints which is so indis- 
pensable. You must recollect, that for work done 
in tent stitch, a greater contrast of shade is required 
than for that done in cross stitch. This remark 
should never be lost sight of. A proper attention 
to the shading of leaves is also indispensable ; the 
kinds of green required for this purpose, are bright 
grass green for a rose ; saxon green for lilies, con- 
volvolus, peonies, &c. ; French green for iris, mari- 
gold, narcissus, &c. ; and for poppies, tulips, &c, a 
willow green, which has a rather bluer tint than 
French green is generally ; and for leaves which 
stand up above the flowers, or near them, it is pro- 
per to work the tips in a very light green, as re- 
flecting the rays of light : the next shade should 
be four times darker, or three at the least, the next 
two, then the fourth shade two darker than the 
third, and the nth two darker than the fourth. 
Take care that the veins of leaves be distinctly 
marked, and those which are in the shade should 
be darker than those upon which the light falls, and 
of a colour having a bluish tint ; a few worked in 
olive green will have a fine effect. The stalks of 
roses, &c, should be worked in olive brown, or a 
very dark green. White flowers are often spoilt 
by being worked of too dark a shade ; if you do 
not work with silk, you may obtain two distinct 



WORK-BOX COMPANION. 83 

shades of white, by using Moravian cotton and 
white wool ; these combined with three shades of 
light stone colour, the second two shades darker 
than the first, and the third darker than the second, 
in the same proportions, will produce a beautiful 
white flower, which if properly shaded by leaves of 
the proper tints, will have a most beautiful appear- 
ance. The lighter parts of all flowers in Berlin 
patterns, may be worked in silk, and in many cases, 
this is a decided improvement, but it should never 
be introduced in the leaves ; here it would be out 
of place. We again repeat, beware of servile 
copying ; try to engage your own judgment in this 
work, and remember that to become used to think 
and to discriminate, is one of the most valuable ac 
quisitions that a young lady can attain. 

For bottle stand, or any small piece of work, 
star patterns are very beautiful. The materials 
proper for working them are silk and wool, with 
gold or any other kind of beads, and gold thread or 
twist. For foundations, you may use either vel- 
vet or silk canvas. 

Small sprigs are pretty for work which is not 
too large ; chenille is proper for the flowers, and 
the stalks and leaves look best in silk ; a few gold 
beads add to the effect. 

For large pieces of work, medallion patterns are 
much used, and produce a good impression on the 
eye ; the outline is to be traced in brilliant silk, 
and for the centre employ two shades of the same 
colour, working half in each shade ; tbe medallion 



84 THE LADY'S 

should be placed upon a white field, and the whole 
grounded in a dark colour, "which harmonizes well 
with the design of the pattern. 

GOBELIN. 

If you work on coarse canvass, adopt the same 
contrast of shades as you employ in cross stitch ; if 
the material be fine, you must shade as in tent 
stitch. 

PATTERNS ON CANVAS. 

Employ for canvas, four or five shades, begin- 
ning: with the darkest, and softening gradually into 
a lighter tint, till you come to the lightest, follow- 
ing the distinction of contrast exhibited by the Ber- 
lin patterns. If you wish to introduce silk into 
any part, it will be best to work it in last. Be 
careful to avoid taking odd threads, if you work 
the pattern in cross stitch. 

ARMORIAL BEARINGS. 

Work the arms and crest in silk, as brilliancy is 
the thing here principally required. It wfll be 
proper that the scroll should be worked in wool. 
The contrast will have a pleasing effect. 

LANDSCAPES. 

These may be rendered extremely beautiful, if 
properly managed. The trees in front should be 



WORK-BOX COMPANION. 85 

much lighter than those seen in the back ground, 
and great care should be taken to prevent the lat- 
ter having too blue a cast, as this renders them un- 
harmonious when contrasted with the sky. Rep- 
resent water by shades of a blue grey ; the sky 
should be a serene blue, with much closeness, and 
mingled with clouds composed of various tints of 
white and a yellow drab. If mountains are seen 
in the distance, they should be of a grey lavender 
tint, and some living animal should, in nearly all 
cases, be introduced. The presence of a cow, 
sheep, &c, gives life and animation to the view. 

MOSAIC WORK. 

If you work with wool, cut it into short lengths 
and untwist it. No wool can be procured suffi- 
ciently fine for this kind of work. If you work 
with silk, the finest floss is preferable to any other ; 
split silk would be found extremely inconvenient, 
and the work would not look so well. Care must 
be taken that the shades are very distinct, or they 
will appear jumbled and unsightly. It will also be 
necessary to fasten off at every shade, and not to 
pass from one shade to another, as in that case, the 
fastenings would become visible on the right side, 
and thus impair the beauty of the performance. In 
working a landscape, some recommend placing be- 
hind the canvas a painted sky, to avoid the trouble 
of working one. As a compliance with such ad- 
vice would tend to foster habits of idleness and de- 
ception, and thus weaken that sense of moral nro- 
8 



S6 THE LADY'S 

priety, which should, in all we do, be ever present 
with us, as well as destroy that nice sense of honour 
and sincerity which flies from every species of de- 
ceit ; we hope the fair votaries of this delightful 
art, will reject the suggestions with the contempt it 
merits. 

GEM, OR . SET PATTERNS. 

For this kind of work ground in black or dark 
wool, and work the pattern in silks, as distinct and 
bright as possible, and with the utmost variety of 
colours. The beauty of these productions depends 
chiefly upon their brilliant and gem-like appear- 
ance. 

PERFORATED CARD. 

The needles must not be too large, or the holes 
will be liable to get broken. The smaller ones 
must be worked in silk ; the larger patterns may be 
done either in silk or wool. Sometimes the flow- 
ers are worked in Chenille, and the leaves in silk; 
this gives to card cases, &c, a beautiful and highly 
ornamental appearance. 

BEAD WORK. 

Use the canvas called bolting; and work two 
threads each way on the slant, with china silk, ta- 
king especial care that the beads are all turned the 
same way, that the whole may appear uniform. 
Work the pattern with thick beads and ground 



WORK-BOX COMPANION. 87 

witn transparent ones. You must, in this kind of 
work, have as few shades as possible. 

BRAID WORK. 

Trace this pattern in the material, and proceed 
with the various shades from the outline or light- 
est, to the darkest, till the whole is completed. In 
this work only two shades are required for leaves, 
and three for flowers ; make the points as sharp as 
possible, and in turning them, work one stitch up 
close to the point where you turn the braid, and an- 
other immediately afterwards, to keep it in place. 
Vein the leaves in a bouquet with pure silk, use 
gold twist in finishing, as taste may direct ; and in 
fastening, draw the braid through the matenal. 
The best instrument for this purpose, is a Chenille 
needle. In braid w T ork and applique, only one 
stitch must be taken at a time, or the work will ap- 
pear puckered. 

RUG BORDERING. 

When we descend into the arena of domestic 
utility, it is vastly surprising in how many ways the 
Art of Needlework adapts itself to comfort and to 
ornament. We may presume carpets to be too un- 
wieldy for the management of fair fingers; but 
rugs come within the compass of the fair Artist's 
skill and taste. Many of the borderings complet- 
ed by English ladies are quite equal to the laboured 
productions of the Gobelins ; and are, of, course, at 



88 THE LADY'S 

all limes superior to those which emanate from the 
loom. 

Use a wooden mesh, about an inch and a quar- 
ter in width, grooved. The materiel is passed over 
the mesh, and worked in cross-stitch. A kind of 
worsted called slacks is used for this purpose, six 
or eight times doubled ; leave three threads be- 
tween each row, and six or eight rows are general- 
ly required to form the border. Turquoise or Tulip 
"•■^^^wood stands are more generally in use than this 
"Bofderi 




It is desirable that the insterstices should corres- 
pond with those of the canvases employed in nee- 
dlework, or a coarseness of surface will be inevita- 
ble. Baskets, &c. are usually dark in colour as the 
ground for embroidery : but why not adopt lighter 
colours ? Dead silver, for instance ; or dead gold 
(the wire being washed with a preparation of gold 
or silver) would be of great beauty, and, if desired, 
the upper rim or other enrichments might be burn- 
ished. 

In doing work of this description, you must be 
careful to wash it well with sponge previously to 
workino-, or the paint will soil your silk or wool. 
There are a great many pretty forms for fruit and 
other baskets which look well finished off with cap 
chenille, a small w T reath for the pattern being work- 
ed around the basket. There are also very pretty 
blotting books, note cases, &c, done in this way, 



WORK-BOX COMPANION. 89 

lined with silk, and filled witfi blotting paper of 
different colors. 



CHAPTER V. 

ARTICLES OF LUXURY THAT MAY BE 
WORKED ON CANVAS. 

GOTHIC CHAIRS 

For dark-framed chairs choose light patterns ; 
tent stitch being grounded in cross stitch, as may 
be seen in the private apartments at Windsor Cas- 
tle. Sometimes a sort of cushion is inserted in the 
back, and the whole is done in cloth or satin, and 
the canvas withdrawn. Flow T er embroidery, gem 
patterns, and braiding, are all made use of in this 
description of work. 

BOX OTTOMANS. 

These should be made up with a deep fringe, 
and may be of any size in harmony with the rest 
of the furniture. Foot Ottomans should be sixteen 
inches square 

8* 



90 THE LADY'S 



CHEVAL SCREENS. 

Either in flowers or figures, this piece of furni- 
ture has a very elegant appearance. Sobriety oi 
colour, when figures are introduced, should always 
be studied. The same maybe said of Pole screens. 
Candle Screens should be mounted in silver or gilt. 
Hand Screens should be worked in wire, card-board, 
or canvas, mounted with velvet or Mosaic leather. 

URN STANDS. 

These are now made in electro-plated frames, or 
those of rosewood, the needlework being in the 
centre. 

SETTEES. 

These should be executed in cloth, thirty-three 
inches long and twenty-six wide. 

BORDERS FOR TABLE COVERS. 

Silk velvet covers worked round the border in gold 
braid and embroidered flowers, and finished with a 
rich fringe, present an exquisite coup oV&uil, — wit- 
ness those at the mansion of the duke of Buccleugh 
in Whitehall Gardens. 

If we may judge from the paintings of interiors 
in the olden time, similar embellishments were in 
high favour. 



WORK-BOX COMPANION. 91 



SOFA PILLOWS. 



Work the squares of canvas with flowers in pre- 
ference to any other pattern, and finish with damask, 
trimming with silk cord, tassels, &c. 

There are few subjects on which more taste may 
be exercised than on these. A certain fulness ap- 
proaching to largeness is desirable in the design, 
otherwise the pillow 7 will be lost in the more mas- 
sive attributes of the sofa itself. 

WEIGHT CUSHIONS. 

These may be obtained ready-made, and after- 
wards covered w r ith any variegated pattern of nee- 
dlework. They are very useful. 

WIPvE BASKETS. 

These should be of silver w r ire, and w T orked in 
silk 

POOL BASKETS. 

Should be worked from a Berlin pattern, and 
trimmed w T ith Chenille. 

BLOTTING BOOKS. 

After being worked on electro-plated gold wire, 
these should be lined with silk, and the blotting pa- 
per (azure is a pretty colour) inserted. 



92 THE LADY'S 



SLIPPERS. 

Are worked in embroider}', on canvas, satin, or 
soft kid. 

ORIENTAL CARPETS. 

For Pic-nic Carpet seats, the parts are usually 
worked separately, and then sewed together. 
Smoking Carpets are of various sizes and shapes, 
and are useful to place upon a lawn in fine weath- 
er. They are wadded and quilted at the back. 
Any pattern may be adopted, but flowers are the 
most appropriate. 

FIRE-SIDE CAPS. 

These are worked in gems, or flowers, or velvet. 
Embroidery and gold braid are also adopted. 
There are several pieces joined together to fit the 
head, and at the top is a handsome tassel. 

BRACES. 

These are worked on silk canvas, and commonly 
in silk. The flowers must be made to meet at the 
half of each brace. The leathern portions, which 
may be purchased separately, are then to be added. 

ELBOW CUSHIONS. 

These are filled with down, finished at the back 
with silk, and trimmed with cord. 



WORK-BOX COMPANION. 93 



HINTS UPON TINTS. 

There is no little difficulty in selecting canvas 
appropriate to the intended pattern. Eighteen 
threads to the inch is a canvas fitted to a pattern a- 
bout ninety-five stitches square : and this latter 
should be worked in cross-stitch, with wool doub- 
led. Ten-stitch should be used on silk canvas, 
when grounding is required, the pattern being large 
in proportion. 

As to Colours, much judgment is required in 
their election, as to differences and distinctness of 
shade, the transitions not being too sudden, or the 
work w T ill have a broken and inharmonious aspect. 
It is very difficult to give directions on this subject, 
as every kind of w T ork differs as to the treatment 
required; but it may be safely stated that the same 
good taste which prevails in Water Colour Paint- 
ing, should preside in Fancy Needlework, with this 
exception, that greater depth and brilliancy may le- 
gitimately be aimed at. Remember, as a special 
rule, that where the stitches are small, the colours 
will not show so obviously, and therefore stronger 
contrast w T ill be indispensable. 

It requires much discrimination to give a natural 
hue to leaves, and, at the same time, to effect such 
contrasts as will give a due relief. Portions of each 
should be much lighter than others, and in the 
grouping a mass should be thrown into shadow un- 



94 THE LADY S 



der the bright leaves; such shadow being compos- 
ed of dark green, blended with neutral tint. Silks 
should only be introduced in the flowers, and chief- 
ly in the lightest portions of them ; white exacts 
considerable management, as it should be shaded 
off with exquisite delicacy, by means of tints that 
have much white in them. 

In coats of arms and crests, these precautions are 
unnecessary for the most part, as distinctness and 
brilliancy are the main qualities demanded. The 
effect is truly beautiful. Colours have an exceed- 
ingly good effect on perforated card; and many la- 
dies adopt this material, working in silk or che- 
nille, and sometimes in wools. In Bead work, a 
canvas, called bolting, is in request, as it is of suffi- 
cient strength. Use transparent beads for the 
grounding, and be very careful that the beads all 
turn the same w T ay. Beads of all colours, and of 
every metal, in its most brilliant form, may be ob- 
tained. 



WORK-BOX COMPANION. 95 



GENERAL REMARKS. 

1. The best Wool is that from Saxony, which is 
derived from the Merino. The late King paid 
much attention to improving the quality, and much 
increased the importations of Sheep from Spain. 

2. Floss Silk is commonly used in Fancy Nee- 
dlework. 

3. Of Gold: the fabrics used are, Passing (a. 
thin thread) ; Cord (two or more threads, twisted) ; 
Braid (plated material); and Bullion (a smooth 
tube, exquisitely twisted); Spangles, Lama, or 
Paillet (gilt plate, very thin); Beads and Fringes 
are also used. 

4. Mother of Pearl, in various forms ; and al- 
so the scales of certain Fish, are used decoratively. 

5. Chenille is in common use : the shades should 
be close. 

6. Braid — Russian, French, Round : and Union 
Cord is much employed. 

7. Paillettes of polished steel are very pret- 
ty in purse-work. 

8. Canvases of Silk, Cotton, Thread or Woollen 
are employed ; but woollen canvas does not look 
by any means so rich as work grounded. French 
Flat embroidery, in silk canvas, is much in vogue. 



9G THE LADY'S 



ROYAL AND NOBLE LADIES 
WHO HAVE EXCELLED IX NEEDLE-WORK. 

There are many reasons why the employment «>f 
the Needle in Embroidery, &c. should enjoy a very 
eminent popularity ; for while it charms away the 
loneliness of solitude, it adds to our stock of useful 
possessions. Moreover, it is attended by no fa- 
tigue, and agreeably excites the imagination and 
inventive faculties. No wonder, therefore, that the 
Royal and Highborn have in all ages favoured so 
delightful an occupation. 

In many works we find it recorded that the la- 
dies of Greece were famous for their labours in 
tapestry, and that embroidery more particularly 
contributed to adorn the person. The standards, 
also, which flaunted o'er the battle-field, were equal- 
ly the care of the gentler sex. That of the "Ra- 
ven," woven bv Danish Princesses, and so much 
dreaded by the opponents of the Sea Kings, is of 
historical notoriety. Among other examples of ad- 
mirable needlework by the beautiful Adelicia, 
Queen of Henry the First, was a standard of silk 
and embroidery, subsequently captured at the Battle 
of Duras, and placed in the cathedral at Liege. 

As holding the mirror up to one of the most im- 
portant events recorded in our annals, the Ba- 




Sappho-Pa bdessus. 

Silk, with moving passementeries: trimmings to match, gaufred and edged 
with fringe. 



WORK-BOX COMPANION. 97 

yeux Tapestry of Queen Matilda is a most curious 
and magnificent specimen of the Art. There has 
been some dispute among antiquaries as to the ex- 
act origin of this celebrated production, but the dis- 
cussion has terminated in confirming the fact that 
the wife of the conquerer Duke William, wrought 
the " Historie" in honour of her illustrious husband. 
It is truly a " painting with the needle" of the 
highest class, and forms one of the best ground- 
works for correct data as to the manners, customs, 
and dress of the period — that is, the year 1666. 
The length of this great work is 228 feet and the 
breadth twenty inches and an eighth. It is 
now kept in the Town Hall, Rouen, and is pre- 
served with much care ; but at the period of the 
great revolution it was in danger of being utterly 
destroyed, by being employed instead of canvas as 
a cover for artillery. Fortunately, a priest conceal- 
ed it, and it was subsequently placed by Napoleon 
under the charge of Denon, and exhibited in Paris 
and elsewhere, in order to stimulate the people in 
favour of a second attempt to invade and conquer 
England. 

The material on which this work is executed is 
white cloth, and the design is completed in coloured 
worsteds. The colours are few, but are generally 
appropriate, — the cloth itself being left for flesh 
tints. There is an allegorical border ; and the 
events are rendered distinct, and therefore more 
easily apprehended, by a tree, the entire depth of 
the canvas, at intervals. The names of the per- 
sons represented, and of the immediate action, are 
9 



9S THE LADY'S 

also given ; so that a two-fold appeal is made to 
the comprehension of the spectator. 

Not only does this famous production throw 
much light upon the customs of the time ; it also 
furnishes a clue to the European origin of needle- 
work of this description ; for the excellence to 
which it had arrived long prior to the Crusades, 
makes it evident that France and the Netherlands 
were not indebted to the East for its introduction. 

The earlier and principal establishments were at 
Valenciennes, Brussels, Bruges, and Antwerp ; but 
the most admired productions were probably those 
of Arras. The Gobelins manufactory was estab- 
lished in France by Sully, in the reign of Henry 
the Fourth. It was, however, in the reign of Louis 
the Fourteenth that the productions of this royal fac- 
tory became celebrated ; and they have since that 
time achieved, periodically, an increased renown. 

The Gobelin copies after Julio Romano and 
Raphael are the most exquisite works in their kind 
that the world can boast. 

After having said thus much of the moderns, and 
their advancement in this branch of Art, it would 
ill become us to overlook the glorious productions 
of Needle-Work among the chosen people of God. 

The daughters of Jerusalem prided themselves 
on the garments worked by them for the conserva- 
tion of their religious rites, and in that most sacred 
performance the " veil." It was of linen, embroid- 
ered with every possible device of flowers, so that 
the ground-work was no longer visible. Beautiful 



WORK-BOX COMPANION. 



99 



and accomplished maidens ! ye have passed away 
and so also have the pious labours of your hands; 
but God and nature are still watchful over the 
scenes of so much glory, combined with so much c . 
suffering and of change ! 




THE LADY'S 
SELF-INSTRUCTOR 

IN 

MILLINERY, MANTUA MAKING, 

AND ALL BRANCHES OF 

PLAIN SEWING. 

WITH PARTICULAR DIRECTIONS FOR CUTTING OUT 
DRESSES, &c. 

JHlustratetf toftl) fourteen Hnjjvab?na». 



9 * ( 101 ) 



PREFACE. 

The dress of a lady has been styled, and not impro- 
perly, the " index of her mind." She cannot, therefore, 
be too careful to make the index a true one, and one 
which the eye of an observer would peruse with plea- 
sure. 

The charms of every woman are heightened by a neat 
and becoming attire ; and her costume can never be so 
becoming as when planned by herself, if not entirely 
made by her own hands. 

A knowledge of Millinery and Mantua Making may 
therefore be ranked amongst the accomplishments most 
useful to a highly educated woman. In the following 
little volume such minute instructions in the art of 
mantua making have been given, that every lady may, 
with but little practice, become her own dress-maker. 
And if she prefers the assistance ot others, she will, by 
a perusal of the work, gain that information which will 
enable her to superintend their labours. 

Millinery is one of the most difficult branches of nee- 
dlework. To become a successful milliner, not only 
practice is required, but some natural taste for the occu- 
pation. We have endeavoured to lay down a few cer- 
tain rules, and to simplify our instructions in such a 
manner that the most inexperierced may comprehend 
them. 

Many valuable stitches will be found under the head 
of Plain Needlework, with explanatory remarks and 
engravings, which will render them comprehensible to 
persons least accustomed to the use of the needle. 

(103) 



THE LADY'S SELF-INSTRUCTOR 



IN 



ftltlltncrt), ittantua-illaktng, €tc. 



CHAPTER I. 

EXPLANATION OF STITCHES. 

Hemming. — Turn down the raw edge as evenly 
as possible. Flatten, and be careful, especially in 
turning down the corners. Hem from rio-ht to 
left ; bring the point of the needle from the chest 
towards the right hand. Fasten the thread with- 
out a knot, and when you finish, sew several stitch- 
es close together, and cut off the thread. 

Mantua-Maker's Hei\i. — You lay the raw edge of 
one of your pieces a little below that of the other j 
the upper edge 'is then turned over the other 
twice, and felled down as strong as possible. 

Sewing and Felling. — If you have selvages, 
join them together, and sew them firmly. If you 
have raw edges, turn down one of the edges once, 
and the other double the breadth, and then turn 
half of it back again. This is for the fell. The 

(105) 



106 MILLINERY, MANTUA-MAKING, 

two pieces are pinned together face to face, and 
seamed together ; the stitches being m a slanting 
direction, and just deep enough to hold the sepa- 
rate pieces firmly together. Then flatten the seam 
with the thumb, turn the work over, and fell it 
the same as hemming. The thread is fastened by 
being worked between the pieces and sewn over. 

Running. — Take three threads, leave three, and 
in order that the work may be kept as firm as pos- 
sible, backstitch occasionally. If you sew selvages, 
they must be joined evenly together ; but if raw 
edges, one must be turned down once, and the 
other laid upon it but a few threads from the top. 
It is, in this case, to be felled afterward. 

Stitching. — The work must be as even as possi- 
ble. Turn down a piece to stitch to, draw a 
thread to stitch upon twelve or fourteen threads 
from the edge. Being thus prepared, you take 
two threads back, and so bring the needle out from 
under two before. Proceed in this manner to the 
end of the row ; and in joining a fresh piece of 
thread, take care to pass the needle between the 
edges, and to bring it out where the last stitch was 
finished. 

Gathering. — You begin, by taking the article to 
be gathered, and dividing it into halves, and then 
into quarters ; putting on pins to make the divis- 
ions. The piece to which you are intending to 
gather it, must be gathered about twelve threads 
from the top, taking three threads on the needle, 
and leaving four ; and so proceeding alternately 
until one quarter is gathered. Fasten the thread 
by twisting it round a pin ; stroke the gathers, so 



PLAIN SEWING, ETC. 107 

that they lie evenly and neatly, with a strong nee- 
dle or pin. You then proceed as before, until all 
the gathers are gathered. Then take out the pins, 
and regulate the gathers of each quarter so as to 
correspond with those of the piece to which it is 
to be sewed. The gathers are then to be fastened 
on, one at a time ; and the stitches must be in a 
slanting direction. The part to be gathered, must 
be cut quite even before commencing, or else it 
will be impossible to make the gathering look well. 

Double Gathering, or Puffing. — This is some- 
times employed in setting on frills, and, w r hen ex- 
ecuted properly, has a pretty effect. You first 
gather the top in the usual way j then, having 
stroked down the gathers, you gather again under 
the first gathering, and of such a depth as you 
wish the puffing to be. You then sew on the first 
gathering to the gown, frock, &c. you design to 
trim, at a distance corresponding with the width 
of the puffing, and the second gathering sew r ed to 
the edge so as to form a full hem. You make a 
double hem, if you please, by gathering three times 
instead of only twice ; and one of the hems may 
be straight, while the other is drawn to one side a 
little. This requires much exactness in the exe- 
cution, but, if properly done, it gives a pleasing, 
variety to the work. 

German Hemming. — Turn down both the raw 
edges once, taking care so to do it as that b oth 
turns may be towards your person j you then lay 
one below the other, so as that the smooth edge 
of the nearest does not touch the other, but lies 



108 MILLINERY, MANTUA-MAKING, 

just beneath it. The lower one is then to be hem 
med or felled to the piece aginst which you have 
laid it, still holding it before you. You are next 
to open your sleeve, or whatever else you have 
been engaged upon; and laying the upper fold 
over the lower, fell it down, and the work is done. 

Whipping. — You cut the edge smooth, and di- 
vide into halves and quarters, as for gathering. 
You then roll the muslin, or other material, very 
lightly upon the finger, making use of the left 
thumb for that purpose. The needle must go in 
on the outside. The whipping cotton should be 
as strong and even as possible. In order that the 
stitches may draw with ease, they must be taken 
with great care. The roll of the whip should be 
about ten threads. 

Herring-Boning. — This is generally employed 
in articles composed of flannel, 
or other thick material. The 
edge is to be cut even, and turn- 
ed down once. You work from 
left to right, thus : put your needle into the mate- 
rial, and take a stitch of two or three threads as 
closely as possible under the raw edge, and bring 
the needle half way up that part which is turned 
down, and four or five threads towards the right 
hand— make another stitch, and bring down the 
needle ; thus proceed until the work is completed. 
This stitch is something like the backbone of a 
fish, and is sometimes used as an ornament for 
children's robes, and at the tops of hems, &c. It 
looks both neat and elegant when carefully execu 
ted. 




I 



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E?2. 



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S P s 



'2.3 

3 S 



o I 3 
^3 2. 

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g.g'S o 
| So 4 

m 2;S* to 



co. 



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S. 3 O 

S a a 



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X 



PLAIN SEWING, ETC. 



109 



C^ 



^Fancy Herring-Boning. — This is the 
same as common herring-bone, only that it 
is done in a perpendicular manner, instead 
of from right to/left ; and the thread is 
brought round behind the needle, so as to 
finish the work in a more tidy manner. It 
has an exceedingly neat and pleasing look 
when well executed. 



Double Herring-Boning. — This pat- 
tern is a kind of double herring-bone 
on each side. The engraving will give 
a better idea of this stitch than any de- 
scription we could give. Great care 
being required to keep the pattern even, 
it is advisable to run a tacking-thread, 
as a guide, down the middle of it. 



Button-Hole. — These should be cut by a thread, 
and their length should be that of 
the diameter of the button. In 
working, the button-hole is to lie 
lengthwise upon the fore-finger ; 
and you begin at the side which 
is opposite to the thumb, and the 
furthest from the point of the finger on which it is 
laid. The needle must go in on the wrong side 
and be brought out on the right, five threads down. 
To make the stitch, the needle is passed through 
the loop before it is tightened or drawn closely. 
Care must be taken in turning the corners, not to 
do it too near ; and, in order that a proper thick- 
10 






110 MILLINERY, MANTL T A-MAKING, 

ness may be obtained, it is necessary that the nee- 
dle should go in between every two threads. Mak 
ing button-holes requires great care and attention. 

Fancy Button-Hole Stitch. — This resembles a 
very wide button-hole stitch, and is 
very neat for the fronts of bodies, 
likewise for the bands and shoul- 
der-bits, and above the broad hems 
and tucks of frocks. 

Chain Stitch. — In making this stitch, you are to 
employ union cord, bobbin, or braid, 
whichever you deem most suitable. — 
Make a knot at the end, and draw it 
through to the right side. While you 
put in the needle, let the end hang loose- 
ly, and bring it out below, so as to in- 
cline a little toward the left. Pass your 
needle over the cord as you draw it out, 
and this will form a loop. In drawing 
out the mesh, you must be careful not 
to draw the stitch too tight, as that would destroy 
the effect. You proceed in the same manner to 
form the next and each succeeding loop ; taking 
care to put the needle in a little higher, and rather 
more to the right than in the preceding stitch, so 
that each loop begins within the lower part of the 
one going before it, and you thus produce the re- 
semblance of a chain. 

Chain Stitch, on Gathers. — This looks well if 
worked in colored worsted or cord. Two gathers 
are taken up for each stitch, taking care always to 
take one of the previous stitches and one new 
gather on the needle at the same time. 




PLAIN SEWING, ETC. 



HI 




Fancy Chain Stitch. — The only difference be- 
tween this and common chain stitch is 
that very little of the cord is taken up 
on the needle at a time, and the stitch- 
es are far from each other. Its ap- 
pearance will be varied accordingly 
as you put in the needle to slant little 
or much. If you work it perfectly 
horizontally, it is button-hole stitch. 

Coral Pattern. — This requires great accuracy 
in the working, and it is advisa- 
^ ble for the inexperienced to run 
lines in long stitches, to fix the 
middle and outsides of the pat- 
tern. It may be best under- 
stood from the engraving, mere- 
ly observing that the stitch is be- 
gun on the left hand, and continued alternately 
from left to right, always pointing the needle tow- 
ard the centre. It is very suitable for the waist- 
bands of children's frocks, the tops of broad hems, 
&c. 

Fancy Bobbin Edging. — This is formed by a suc- 
cession of loops, made in the fol- 
lowing manner : Make a knot at 
the end, and put the needle 
through to the right side, just be- 
low the hem. Bring the bobbin 
over the hem, and putting in the 
needle at the wrong side, bring it 
through. Draw the loop to the size you desire, 
pass the bobbin through it, and commence the next 
stitch, proceeding as before. 





112 



MILLINERY, MANTUA-MAKING 




The Serpentine Stitch. — This is exceedingly 
pretty, and is much employed for children's 
dresses. It is worked with the hand, being" 
sown on to the material when made. Take 
s| the cord, knot it so as to form a loop at one 
end, then pass the other end through the 
loop toward the front, to form another loop 
toward the right hand; continue passing the 
bobbin through the loop on one side, then 
through the loop on the other, directing the cord 
so to pass from the side of the work invariably to- 
ward the inner part, or that part next the work. 

The Angular Stitch. — This stitch resembles 
£ ; , button-hole stitch, only that it is carried 
^Qj from right to left for the purpose of form- 
ing the pattern. It is a very neat ornament 
for cuffs, skirts, and capes of children's pe- 
lisses. As much of its beauty depends on 
its regularity, care should be taken to 
make the patterns very even and straight, 
and of equal width. 

The Horse-Shoe Stitch. — This is done with 
thick, loosely-twisted cotton, or bob- 
bin, and is worked from left to right, 
as shown in the accompanying en- 
graving. It has an exceedingly pret- 
ty appearance — especially when it is 
worked near the edge of robings, 
hems, &c. 



Honey-Combing. — The material may be velvet, 






PLAIN SEWING, ETC. 113 

silk, &c, and the mode of work- 
ing it is as follows : The piece 
you intend honey-combing must 
be creased in regular folds, taking care that they 
are as even as possible. Then make the folds lie 
closely together by tacking them with a strong 
thread, and on long stitches. You then take silk 
of the proper colour — stitch together, at equal and 
moderate distances, the first two folds, and pro- 
ceed with each succeeding two in the same man- 
ner, only taking the stitches in the intermediate 
spaces. Thus the stitches of each alternate row 
will correspond together. Draw out the thread 
when the work is finished, and on pulling it open, 
it will form diamonds on the right side. This 
work is proper for the inside of work-boxes, 
and is sometimes employed to ornament the tops 
of beds. It looks well if carefully executed. 



CHAPTER II. 

MISCELLANEOUS INSTRUCTIONS. 

Binding. — Various kinds of work have binding 
set on to them, in preference to hemming them, 
or working them in herring-bone stitch. Flannel 
is generally bound, sometimes with a thin tape, 
made for the purpose, called "flannel binding." 
It is also common to bind flannel with sarcenet ri- 
band. The binding is so put on as to show but 
little over the edge on the right side, where it is 
10* 



114 MILLINERY, MANTUA-MAKING, 

hemmed down neatly ; on the other side it is run 
on with small stitches. 

Braiding. — Silk braid looks pretty, and is used 
for a variety of purposes. In putting it on, it is 
best to sew it with silk drawn out of the braid, as 
it is a better match, and the stitches will be less 
perceived. 

Marking. — It is of essential importance that 
clothes should be marked and numbered. This is 
often done with ink; but as some persons like to 
mark with silk, we shall describe the stitch. Two 
threads are to be taken each way of the cloth, and 
the needle must be passed three ways, in order 
that the stitch may be complete. The first is 
aslant from the person, toward the right hand. 
The second is downward toward you; and the 
third is the reverse of the first — that is, aslant 
from you toward the left hand. The needle is to 
be brought out at the corner of the stitch nearest 
to that you are about to make. The shapes of the 
letters or figures can be learned from an inspec- 
tion of any common sampler. 

Piping. — This is much used in ornamenting chil- 
dren's and other dresses. It is made by enclos- 
ing a card of the proper thickness in a strip of silk 
cut crosswise, and must be put on as evenly as 
possible. 

Plaiting. — The plaits must be as even as it is 
possible to place them one against another. In 
double plaiting, they lie both ways, and meet in 
the middle. 

Biasing. — In this operation the first part of the 
stitch is the same as gathering. You then stitch 



PLAIN SEWING, ETC. 



115 




down ; and upon the right side 
of the gather you lay a thread a 
good deal thicker than the one 
you used for gathering. Over 
this thread you sew, taking care 
to take hold of the gathering 
J thread. The needle is to be 
pointed to your chest. You may work two or 
three rows in this way upon the sleeves and shoul- 
ders of dresses, &c. which has a very handsome 
effect. You must take care to bring the needle 
out between each gather. 

Tucks. — These require to be made even. You 
should have the breadth of the tuck, and also the 
space between each, notched on a card. They 
look the best run on with small and regular stitch- 
es. You must be careful to take a backstitch con- 
stantly as you proceed. 

Making Buttons. — Cover the wire with a piece 
of cotton cloth, or other material of the proper 
size ] turn in the corners neatly, and work round 
the wire in button-hole stitch : work the centre 
like a star. 

In making up linen, thread is much preferable 
to cotton. Sewing silk should be folded up neatly 
in wash leather, and colored threads and cotton in 
paper, as the air and light are likely to injure 
them. Buttons, hooks and eyes, and all metal 
implements, when not in use, should be kept fold- 
ed up, as exposure to the air not only tarnishes 
them, but is likely to injure them in a variety of 
ways. 

Night Gowns. — These must be made of a size 



116 MILLINERY, MANTUA-MAKING, 

suitable for the wearer. The following are direc- 
tions for three different sizes : The length of the 
gown on the skirts is one yard and a half for the 
first size, one yard and six nails for the second, and 
one yard and three nails for the third ; the width 
of the material is eighteen, sixteen, and fourteen 
nails respectively ; and the garment is to have one 
yard and a half breadth in width. They are to be 
crossed so as to be at the bottom twenty-one, 
eighteen, and sixteen nails, and at the top fifteen, 
fourteen and twelve nails, as the sizes may re- 
quire. The length of the sleeves is nine, eight, and 
seven nails, and the width is half a breadth : they 
are to be furnished with gussets, three, two, and 
two nails square, and with wristbands of the pro- 
per width, and of any depth that is deemed desir- 
able. A binder of one nail and a half is put down 
the selvage of each sleeve, which strengthens it 
much. The gown is furnished with a collar about 
three nails deep, and of the length required by the 
wearer ; and, in order that it may fit properly, 
neck gussets of two, one, and one nail square, are 
to be introduced. A slit of about six nails is made 
in front, which is hemmed round, and the space 
left for the shoulders is three, two and a half, and 
two nails respectively. The whole is finished 
with a neat frill round the collar and wristbands. 
If economy is an object, cut three gowns together. 
This will prevent much waste of material ; an ob- 
ject, by every head of a family to be kept constant- 
ly in view. 

A Dress Scarf. — This is made of broad satin 
riband, and must not be less than two nails and a 
half wide : its length is two yards and three quar- 



PLAIN SEWING, ETC. 117 

ters. The riband is to be doubled on the wrong 
side, and run in a slanting direction, so as to cause 
it to fall gracefully on the neck. The ends are to 
be embroidered and ornamented with braid. The 
scarf is to be surrounded by an edging of swans' 
down. This is an elegant article of female attire. 

A Plain Scarf. — This is generally made of net, 
the whole breadth, and two yards and a half long. 
It is hemmed all round with a broad hem, so as to 
admit a riband to be run in, which gives it a neat 
and finished appearance. 

An Indian Scarf. — This is an elegant article of 
dress, and can be easily made. The material is a 
rich Cashmere, and three colours are required j that 
is, black, scarlet, and a mazarine blue. You must 
have the scarf four nails and a half in width, and 
one yard and six nails in length ; this must be 
black. Then you must have of the other two col- 
ours, pieces seven nails long, and the same width 
as the black ; and you are, after finding the exact 
middle of the black stripe, to slope off one nail and 
a half towards each side, and then slope one end 
of the blue and of the scarlet piece, so as to make 
them accord precisely with the ends of the black 
previously prepared. You are to cut one nail and 
a half from the middle to the ends. You are then 
to split the blue and the scarlet stripes down the 
middle, and join half of the one to the half of the 
other, as accurately as possible. The pieces thus 
joined together are to -be sewn to the black stripe, 
and the utmost care must be taken to make the 
points unite properly. You are to sew the pieces 
flat together, and herring-bone them all round on 



118 MILLINERY, MANTUA-MAKING, 

the right side. You finish by laying a neat silk 
gimp all round and over all the joinings. It should 
be of a clear bright colour. The ends are to be 
fringed with scarlet and blue to correspond with 
the two half stripes. 

Che::ises. — These are generally made of fine 
Irish linen, or cotton cloth. They are made ei- 
ther with gores or crossed. The latter is the 
neatest method. Two breadths are sufficient for a 
full-sized shift, and gores are cut off of a given 
width at the bottom, and extending to a point, in 
order to widen the garment. In crossing a shift, 
you first sew the long seams; then you double it 
in a slanting direction, so as to mark off at top 
and bottom ten nails at opposite corners ; this 
done, you join the narrow ends together, and sew 
the cross seams, leaving a sufficient slit for the 
armholes. There are various methods of cutting 
the back and bosom. Some cut out a scollop both 
before and behind : but in this case the back is 
hollowed out one-third less than the front. Some 
ladies hollow out the back, but form the bosom 
with a flap, which may be cut either straight or in 
a slanting direction from the shoulders. Another 
method of forming: the bosom is bv cutting- the 
shoulder-straps separate from the shift and mak- 
ing the top quite straight : bosom gores are then 
let in, in front : the top is hemmed both before 
and behind, and a neat frill gives a finish to the 
whole. The sleeves may be either set in plain or 
full, as suits the taste of the wearer. Sometimes 
the sleeve and gusset are both in one piece; at 
other times they are separate. In all cases great 
care should be taken, in cutting out, not to waste 



PLAIN SEWING, ETC. 119 

the material. For this purpose it is always advis- 
able to cut out several at one time. Chemises for 
children of from five to ten years of age are gener- 
ally made with flaps both before and behind. This 
is decidedly the neatest shape for them. The bot- 
tom, in all cases, should be hemmed with a broad 
hem. 

Shirts. — These are generally made of linen, but 
cotton cloth is also made use of. The degree of 
fineness must be determined by the occupation and 
station of the wearer. A long piece of linen will, 
if cut with care, make several shirts of an ordina- 
ry man's size. In cutting, you must take a shirt 
of the required dimensions as a pattern, and by it 
measure the length of several bodies, not cutting 
any but the last. Then cut off the other bodies, 
and from the remainder cut off the sleeves, binders, 
gussets, <&c, measuring by the pattern. Bosom 
pieces, falls, collars, &c, must be fitted and cut 
by a paper or other pattern which suits the persor 
for whom the articles are intended. In making 
up, the bodies should be doubled, so as to leave 
the front flap one nail shorter than that behind. 
Then marking off the spaces for the length of the 
riaps and arm-holes, sew up the seams. The bo- 
som slit is five nails, and three nails is the space 
left for the shoulders. The space for the neck 
will be nine nails. One breadth of the cloth makes 
the sleeves, and the length is from nine to ten 
nails. The collar and the wristbands are made to 
fit the neck and wrists, and the breadths are so 
various that no general rule can be given. You 
make the binders or linings about twelve nails in 
length and three in breadth; and the sleeve gus- 



'120 MILLINERY, MANTUA-MAKING, 

sets are three, the neck gusset two, the flap gus- 
sets one, and the bosom gusset half a nail square. 
The work or stitches introduced into the collar, 
wristbands, &c, are to be regulated according to 
the taste of the maker or the wearer. 

Gentlemen's night shirts are made in a similar 
manner, only that they are larger. The cloth re- 
commended to be used is that kind of linen or cot- 
ton which is called shirting width. Where a 
smaller size is required, a long strip will cut off 
from the width, which will be found useful for 
binders, wristbands, &c. 

Gentlemen's Fronts. — The material is fine lawn 
or cambric. Sometimes the sides are composed 
of the former, and the middle of the latter. A 
false hem is made down the middle, furnished with 
buttons, as if to open ; the neck is hollowed to the 
depth of a nail, and is plaited or gathered into a 
stock or band. In order that it may sit neat upon 
the bosom, two neck gussets are introduced. 

Lady's Flannel Waistcoat. — This is in many 
cases an indispensable article of female attire. For 
an ordinary size, you must take a piece of flannel 
twelve nails wide and seven deep, folding it exact- 
ly in the middle. At two nails from the front, 
which is doubled, the arm-holes must be cut, leav- 
ing two nails for half of the back. The front is to 
be slightly hollowed. At the bottom cut a slit of 
three nails, immediately under the arm-holes, into 
which insert a gore three nails broad and the same 
in length, and terminating in a point. Bosom 
gores are also to be introduced of a similar shape 
and just half the size — put in just one nail from 



PLAIN SEWING, ETC. 121 

the shoulder-strap. In making the waistcoat, it is 
to be herring-boned all round, as are also all the 
goros and slits. A broad tape, one nail in width, 
is laid down each side of the front, in which the 
button-holes are made and buttons set on ; the 
shoulder-straps are of tape, and the waistcoat fast- 
ens in front. 

Bustles, or Tourneures. — These are worn to 
make the waist of the gown sit neatly upon the 
person. They are made the width of the material 
and eight nails deep. The piece is to be so dou- 
bled as to make two flounces, one four nails and a 
half, and the other three and a half deep. A case 
to admit of tapes to be made one nail from the 
top. When worn, the article is turned inside out. 
The materials are strong jean, cotton cloth, or In- 
dia-grass cloth. 

Aprons. — These are made of a variety of mate- 
rials, and are applied to various uses. The aprons 
used for common purposes, are made of white, 
blue, brown, checked, and sometimes of black lin- 
en ; nankeen, stuff, and print, are also employed. 
The width is generally one breadth of the materi- 
al, and the length is regulated by the height of the 
wearer. Dress aprons are, of course, made of fin- 
er materials, cambric muslin, satin, lace, clear and 
other kinds of muslin, &c, and are generally two 
breadths wide, one of which is cut in two so as to 
throw a seam on each side, and leave an entire 
breadth for the middle. Aprons of all kinds are 
straight, and either plaited or gathered on to the 
band or stock at the top. Those with only one 
breadth, are hemmed at the bottom with a broad 
hem, those with two breadths must be hemmed 
11 



122 MILLINERY, MANTUA-MAKING, 

at the sides likewise. The band should be frorr 
half a nail to a nail broad ; its length is to be de- 
termined by the waist of the wearer. It should be 
fastened at the back with hooks and eyelet holes. 
To some aprons pockets are attached, which are 
either sewed on in front, or at the back, and a slit 
made in the apron to correspond with them. The 
slit or opening - of the pocket is to be hemmed neat- 
ly, or braided, as may be most desirable. In some 
kinds of aprons bibs are introduced, which are use- 
ful to cover the upper part of the dress. Their 
size must be determined by the taste of the person 
who is to wear them. 

Dress Aprons. — Take two breadths of any mate- 
rial you choose, dividing one of them in the mid- 
dle. Hem all round with a broad hem three- 
fourths of a nail deep. The band is to be one and 
a half nails deep in the middle, into which a piece 
of whalebone is to be inserted, on each side of 
which work a row or two in chain-stitch. The 
band is scolloped out from the centre on its low- 
er side five and a half nails, leaving the extrem- 
ities of the band one nail broad. To the scollop- 
ed portion the apron is to be fulled on, so as to sit 
as neat as possible, leaving the space beneath the 
whalebone plain. Confine the folds by working 
two rows of chain-stitch just below the curved 
lines of the band, leaving half an inch between 
each row. The lower edge of the band is orna 
mented with a small piping, but is left plain at the 
top. 

Vandyke Apron. — This may be made either ol 
silk or muslin. The edge of the apron is to be 
turned down once all round on the ri^ht side to th« 



PL4IN SEWING, ETC 123 

depth of three quarters of a nail, and the Vandykes 
are formed by running from the edge of the apron 
to near the rough edge of the material, which is af- 
terwards to be turned in. When the Vandykes arc 
completed, they are to be turned inside out ana 
made as smooth as possible. A braid or a row of 
tent-stitch on the right side over the stitches is a 
pretty finish. In setting on the band, the plaits 
must be placed opposite to each other so as to 
meet in the middle. You may line the band with 
buckram or stiff muslin, and ornament it with pip- 
ing if you please. 

Apron for a young person. — Clear muslin is the 
best material. Hem round with a hem three 
fourths of a nail deep, lay all round within the hem 
a shawl bordering, not quite so broad as a hem. 
Of course the latter must be taken off before wash- 
ing. 

A Morning Apron. — This may be made like the 
last, but, instead of the shawl bordering, surround 
the outer edge of the hem by a deep crimped frill, 
a nail in breadth. The material most in use is ja- 
conet or cambric muslin. The frill of lawn or cam- 
bric — whichever you please. 

Girl's Apron. — Use any material that is deemed 
advisable. The bib is to be made to fit the wearer 
in front, between the shoulders, and sloping to the 
waist. The apron is to be gathered or plaited to 
the band; and the shoulder-straps maybe made ol 
the same material, or of riband. The bib either 
plain or ornamented with tucks or folds, as may be 
deemed most suitable. 

Bathing Gown. — The materials employed are 



124 MILLINERY, MANTUA-MAKING, 

various. Flannel, stuff, or Bombazine, are the most 
preferable, giving free ingress to the water. The 
length must be determined by the height of the 
wearer, and the width at the bottom should be 
about fifteen nails. It should be folded as you 
would a pinafore, and sloped three and three quar- 
ters nails for the shoulder. The slits for the arm- 
holes must be three nails and three quarters long, 
and the sleeves are to be set in plain : the length of 
the latter is not material. It is useful to have a 
slit of three inches in front of each. The gown is 
to have a broad hem at the bottom, and to be gath- 
ered into a band at the top, which is to be drawn 
tight with strings ; the sleeves are to be hemmed 
and sewn round the arm or wrist in a similar man- 
ner. 

Caps. — These are made of a great variety of pat- 
terns, and the materials are as various as the pur- 
poses to which the article is applied. Muslins of 
various kinds, lawn, net, lace, and cotton cloth, are 
all in request ; and the borders are also extremely 
various, muslin, net, or lace, being those most in 
common use. The shapes are so multifarious as 
to preclude us from giving any specific directions. 
Every lady must choose her own pattern, as best 
suits the purpose she has in view. The patterns 
should be cut in paper, and considerable care is re- 
quisite, in cutting out, not to waste the material. 
A little careful practice will soon make this depart- 
ment familiar to the expert votaress of the needle. 

Gentlemen's Belts. — These are worn by per- 
sons who take much and violent exercise, and are 
extremely useful. They are made of strong jean 
or other material, and sometimes of leather and 



PLAIN SEWING, ETC. 125 

may either be made straight or a little aslant, or 
peaked. Runners of cotton are inserted to make 
them more strong, and they must be furnished with 
long straps of webbing at the ends, sewed on with 
leather over them. The straps are about three 
inches in depth. 



CHAPTER III. 



MILLINERY. 



Much diversity of opinion exists as to the colours 
most to be preferred for bonnets. For young per- 
sons, bonnets look well made of shaded silks ; but 
for adults silks of a light and undecided colour are, 
we think, most elegant. No doubt, in the choice 
both of material and of colour, considerable defer- 
ence must be paid to the prevailing fashion. It is 
well to avoid the two extremes into which some 
people are very apt to fall. The one is an entire 
disregard to the prevailing taste, and the other a 
servile submission to its tyrannic sway. A medi- 
um course is the only sensible one, and, in this, 
good sense will dictate how far to go, and where 
to stop. 

Amid the variety of shapes for bonnets, the 

straight cottage form may, in our opinion, claim 

the pre-eminence : they will always, more or less, 

be fashionable, being general favourites. Drawn 

11* 



126 MILLINERY, MANTUA-MAKING, 

bonnets have been much worn, and are not likely 
to be soon out of favour ; they are well adapted for 
summer, and have an exceedingly neat appearance 
if proper pains are taken in the construction of 
them ; they have also another advantage — they 
may be made of almost any material, and look well 
either in silk or satin. Net is also employed for 
the same purpose, and made either of white or co- 
loured muslin ; they look extremely pretty. We 
hope the following directions will enable any 
young lady to make her own. 

If the bonnet is a full-sized one, and is made of 
muslin the width of common print, the required 
quantity is one yard and a quarter ; and if the ma- 
terial be silk or satin, two yards will be found ne- 
cessary. The canes are bought ready prepared, 
or you may use whalebone for the slots if you pre- 
fer it : it has one advantage, that is, it is not so lia- 
ble to break as the canes are ; of course, it is much 
dearer. Having got all the requisite articles, you 
proceed to make the bonnet as follows : First, 
make a foundation, either of willow or pasteboard, 
the shape you design the article to assume when 
finished, and you may make the crown and front 
of the bonnet all in one, or in separate pieces, 
whichever you think best. We shall first give di- 
rections for making a drawn bonnet, with the front 
and crown in one. This method is thus executed : 
It may be proper to premise, that in making a 
drawn bonnet with the crown and front in one 
piece, you find yourself obliged to join a piece of 
the material to the crown as neatly as possible, as 
neither silk nor satin is of a sufficient width, unless 
the bonnet be very small. You are first to take 



PLAIN SEWING, ETC. 127 

one yard and a quarter of the silk, and doubling it 
lengthwise, round off the corners by the pattern 
previously made ; then slit the silk down the mid- 
dle, and run it together at the outer edge. Then 
turn it so as to have the running on the inside. 
Next make the places to receive the canes. You 
are to make four or five of these runners close to 
the edge, all round, in order to give it sufficient 
strength, and just wide enough to admit the canes. 
Above these the other runners are to be made half 
an inch distant from each other, and with a small 
hole to admit the canes ; when the latter have 
been put in, these holes are to be sewed up. The 
runners are to be made with sewing silk, which is 
not to be cut off, but left, as by its means you can 
the more easily draw the bonnet to the proper 
shape. Continue these runners until you have 
completed the whole front, and then proceed to 
make the crown thus ; Make runners the same dis- 
tance as in the front, and the same number close 
at the top as you made in the edge. Having fin- 
ished all the runners, measure the proper length 
of the canes by the pattern, cut them off, and in- 
sert them ; you must also insert a wire of sufficient 
strength in the place of the second cane from the 
edge. You are then to draw up the silk both of 
the front and the crown to its proper size, by means 
of the silk ends you left to the runners, and fasten 
them as neatly and securely as possible. What is 
called the head-lining, is a piece of silk or muslin, 
neatly hemmed, and of the same depth as the 
crown, which, having inserted, you cut the cur- 
tain from the silk, three quarters of a yard in 
length, and half a quarter deep ; this curtain is to be 



128 MILLINERY, MANTUA-MAKING, 

finished by a narrow slip cut on the cross, sewn 
on to it, turned over, and hemmed neatly down on 
the under side. The curtain is cut crosswise of 
the silk. In preference to the narrow slip, some 
persons put a cord round the edge of the curtain, 
which must have a runner and cane at the top, on 
which you draw it to the size required. The bon- 
net is now complete, and can be trimmed as taste 
and fancy may direct. 

Another method of making this kind of bonnets 
is to have the front and crown separate. In this 
case, the front is made in the same manner as in 
the former example in all respects. The same 
^ngth of material is required, which is to be doub- 
led and cut in the same manner. For the crown 
you make a foundation of willow or stiff muslin, 
and you must so make the round patch at the top 
as that it will stand half an inch above the edge. 
This top piece is to be covered with plain silk, and 
before you cover the sides of the crown you must 
sew it on to the front; you need not have the 
crown double silk, as an inferior material for the 
lining is quite sufficient. You make runners for 
the crown, and prepare the curtain as before di- 
rected. 

Bonnets of this kind, when formed all in one 
piece, are best made of muslin or of net, and they 
are especially light and agreeable in the sultry 
days of summer. 

Bonnets of various shapes are made of plain and 
figured silk or satin, and must in all cases be form- 
ed upon a stiff foundation. The best and most 
economical way is to purchase a foundation of the 
shape required, which is to be found in the differ- 



PLAIN SEWING, ETC. 129 

ent millinery establishments. Having procured 
one to your mind, proceed as follows : Detach the 
crown from the front, and shape the material by 
the pattern, tack the lining and the outside to the 
front and cord, or otherwise secure the edges. 
Then make the crown, covering the top first ; then 
put on it the piece of the material that is to go 
round, in a proper manner, and secure it at the 
top by a single or double row of cord, fit it as 
tightly as possible to the frame you had before pre- 
pared, and fasten it on at the back. You then 
turn in the edges and set it on the front. The edge 
of the crown is to be outermost, or over that of 
the front. You put in the head lining and attach 
the curtain as in the former examples, and trim it 
as you choose. 

Bonnets for children are, for the most part, made 
in the same manner, and of the same materials. 

An acquaintance with the directions here given 
will soon enable any one to make a bonnet of al- 
most any shape. The principles are the same in 
all, and details cannot be learned from books — 
the^can only be the result of observation and ex- 
perience. 

Mourning bonnets are made of black silk and 
trimmed with crape, or, if for deeper mourning, 
covered with crape. In trimming mourning bon- 
nets, the crape, bow, and strings, are generally 
broad hemmed, the double hem being from half an 
inch to one inch broad. For very deep mourning, 
the front of the bonnet has a fall or veiling of 
crape, half a yard deep and a yard and a half long, 
having a broad hem at the lower edge. The up- 
per edge, being drawn up to the size of the front, 



130 MILLINERY, MANTUA-MAKING, 

is either inserted between the covering and the 
lining, or is set in along the upper ed^e r^d cover- 
ed with a fold of crape. 

Collars and Capes. — These are so numerous 
and various, both in their shapes and materials, 
that to give particular examples in a hand-book 
is impossible. The general principles in all are 
the same ; they are worn as a finish to the dress, 
and should be made to sit as neatly upon the neck 
and shoulders as possible. Velvet, silk, net, lace, 
and various kinds of muslin, are the materials em- 
ployed ; they are made plain, and with worked 
edges, square-cornered, or in a semi-circular form, 
as best suits the taste of the wearer, and the pur- 
pose they are intended to answer. They are some- 
times made with a small collar to turn down upon 
a larger one ; neat ones are made of clear muslin, 
with a border of braid laid on in various tasteful 
devices. The widow's collar is made of book-mus- 
lin, with a broad hem at the edge, and over this is 
placed black crape. The cuffs, generally from five 
to seven inches deep, are made the same way and 
of the same materials. Collars for slighter mourn- 
ing are made of muslin, crape, or net. 

Turbans — The foundation of a turban is usually 
made of slight buckram or stiff muslin, cut so as 
to form a broad band for going round the head, 
with a peak or point to rise above the forehead. 
This band has a chip and thin wire at the upper 
and lower edges, and is lined with persian or sar- 
cenet. The material of which the turban is made 
(being crape, tulle, or gauze — frequently a gauze 
handkerchief) is then pinned on according to your 



PLAIN SEWING, ETC. 131 



pattern or your taste, with a few occasional stitch- 
es. As turbans are rarely trimmed, they should 
be neatly put together in every part. On all sides 
they should be finished so as to bear the eye. 

To make a turban in the Turkish style, two 
lengths of gauze, perhaps two gauze scarfs, are 
twisted, one over the other, round the foundation 
A piece of the gauze is left over to cover the crown, 
and the ornamented ends hang down on one side. 



CHAPTER IV. 

DRESS- MAKING. 

INSTRUCTIONS IN CUTTING OUT A DRESS. 

In many instances, to be able to cut out and 
make up a dress, is an acquisition of no small ad- 
vantage to its possessor. This useful branch of 
female education is not, in our opinion, cultivated 
with that care which its importance demands ; and, 
in consequence, much expense is often incurred, 
where the money might be applied toother impor- 
tant and necessary purposes. Some people have 
an idea that they can cut out a gown or other dress 
merely by looking at one already made, or by an 
inspection of the drawings, and in most cases very 
deficient descriptions, found in books of the fash- 
ions : but this is a sad mistake. No great exer- 
tions are necessary in order to become capable of 



t 



132 MILLINERY, MANTUA-MAKING, 

practising this part of domestic economy ; but 
still, its principles must be understood, and its 
most simple rules impressed on the memory, be- 
fore anything like accuracy, to say nothing of pro- 
ficiency, can be attained. 

No one will deny the importance of dress ; it is, 
in fact, an index to the character ; and the female 
who is utterly regardless of her appearance, may 
be safely pronounced deficient in some of the more 
important qualities which the term " good charac- 
ter" implies. On the other hand, a regard to neat- 
ness and order, held in due subordination to the 
exercise of the nobler faculties, will generally be 
found to stand in close connexion with an earnest 
endeavour after the attainment of intellectual and 
moral excellence. Thus, an attention to neatness 
in dress and its judicious arrangement, so as to 
be in accordance with the station and circumstan- 
ces of the wearer, becomes of much more moment 
than, on a superficial view of the subject, some 
might be disposed to admit. 

Most girls begin dress-making very early ; that 
is to say, when they clothe their dolls : and very 
good practice it is. When their mother gives 
them a remnant of print, and they turn it about, 
and measure it to ascertain whether there is 
enough for a frock, and if there is not enough for 
a frock, determine whether it shall be a petticoat 
or a pinafore, and cut it out accordingly, — all this 
is practice in dress-making. When the doll is bid- 
den to lie very still to be fitted, and when she is 
laid sometimes on her face, sometimes on her 
back, and sometimes held with her head down- 
ward, while a paper pattern of her waist is being 



PLAIN SEWING, ETC. 133 

cut, — all this is practice in dress-making. The 
practice will be all the better if the mother can 
spare a minute to look on, and point out that the 
front of the body may, if convenient, be cut on 
the cross, but that the backs and armpieces must 
be straightwise of the cotton ; and if she can just 
show how far back the join of the sleeve should 
go, and how the skirt should be a little taken up 
in front, that it may sit well, and riot hang lower 
before than behind. It will be kind in the mother, 
too, not to allow bad work in a doll's dress, any 
more than in her own gowns. If you have had 
a mother or a schoolmistress who let you dress a 
doll, and made you do it neatly, you have had as 
good an introduction to your future business as 
you could desire. 

From making your doll's frocks, your next step 
was, probably, to make your own. Your first at- 
tempt, perhaps, was to run the seams of the skirt 
of your cotton frock, — to run the selvage seams 
with a backstick, and, in case of a gore or half- 
breadth, to make a hem with the selvage over the 
cut edge. If you puckered it in the least, I hope 
you were made to take it out and do it again, tak- 
ing care to pin the edges together at short distan- 
ces the whole length, that you might not find, 
when you came to the bottom, that one breadth 
gave you an inch or two over the other. Some 
few things about making a skirt should have been 
explained to you at the beginning — things which 
are true about the making of all skirts, through 
every change of fashion, and whether the dress be 
of the coarsest stuff or the richest satin. These 
are — 

12 



134 MILLINERY, MANTUA-MAKING, 

1st. Tnat you should pin or tack together the 
breadths of the skirt at the top, before you begin, 
so that you may not chance to put in more gores 
on one side than the other (if there are gores), or 
find that the hind-breadth comes to one side. 

2dly. That you should, while first arranging the 
breadths, look very carefully that no one breadth 
is turned wrongside out, if there are two sides ; 
or. if figured, with the pattern upside down. 

3dly. That, as the uppermost edge takes up the 
most, as your work lies over your linger, and as 
the cut edge stretches more than the selvage, you 
should, as before mentioned, pin from top to bot- 
tom, before you begin to join them, the breadths 
on which you are employed. This is the surest 
way of avoiding puckering. 

•ithly. That you should, as often as possible, 
begin your run at the top, so that if there is any 
left over, it may go off at the bottom, where it is 
of the least consequence. You can do this in ev- 
ery case but where you have to join a cut edge 
and a selvage, and must begin at the bottom in or- 
der to have the selvage uppermost. 

5thly. That you must remember that gored 
skirts hang lower at the bottom of the gores than 
either before or behind, and that the first turning 
in of the hem should be therefore laid in rather 
deeper at the sides of the skirt. 

Cthly. That you should make your fastenings so 
good as that the dress may wear out before they 
give way. This is particularly important with re- 
gard to the pocket-holes and the openings behind, 
which should be well secured by stitching, or a 
bar at the turn. It is very trying to a lady to find 



PLAIN SEWING, ETC. 135 

her skirt slit down behind the first time she slips 
her gown over her head, or her pocket hole give 
way before she has put her hand into it half a do- 
zen times. 

With these remarks, and a proper share of at- 
tention, the following instructions will remove 
much of the difficulty in which the novice in the 
art of dress-making finds herself involved. 

First, the materials for the intended dress must 
be procured, and it is advisable, whenever practi- 
cable, to get them all at the same time. The ne- 
cessary requisites, are the material, the lining for 
the body and skirt, wadding, covering, hooks and 
eyes, silk, thread, and what is called stiffening 
muslin. You will require all those for a silk dress, 
and most of them for those of other fabrics. 

Having thus procured the required articles, pro- 
ceed to cut out the dress, first measuring off the 
number of breadths of the proper length for the 
skirt (which is, of course, to be regulated by the 
height of the wearer, and by the manner in which 
it is intended to be made), and try them carefully 
on one side. If tucks are to be introduced into 
the skirt, a proper allowance must be made for 
these, as also for the turnings both at top and bot- 
tom. You next cut out the sleeves, as being the 
largest parts of the garment except the skirt. In 
cutting out the sleeves, you must first prepare a 
pf.per pattern of the required shape ; then double 
the lining, and cut it exactly the shape of the pa- 
per, leaving about half an inch all round for the 
turnings in. You will thus cut the sleeve linings 
both together, and will avoid some labour and all 
danger of making one larger than the other. 



136 



MILLINERY, MANTUA-MAKING, 



Double the silk or other material so as that both 
the wrong sides may face each other, and cut the 
sleeves by the lining just prepared. To secure 
exactness, it is best to tack it to the material. Be 
careful to lay the straight side of the pattern to 
the selvage of the silk. 

The sleeves being thus prepared, proceed to take 
the proper measures for the front and back of the 
body, by fitting a paper pattern to the shape of the 
person for whom the dress is intended. The pa- 
per should be thin, and you commence by folding 
down the corner the length of the front, and pin- 
ning it to the middle of the stay-bone. Then 
spread the paper as smoothly as possible along the 
bosom to the shoulder, and fold it in a plait, so as 
to fit the shape exactly, and bring the paper under 
the arm, making it retain its position by a pin ; 
from this point you cut it off downward under the 
arm, and along the waist ; the paper is then to be 
rounded for the arm-hole and the shoulder, and 
you must recollect to leave it large enough to ad- 
mit of the turnings. In the same manner you pro- 
ceed to form the back, pinning the paper down 
straightly ; and leaving sufficient for the hem, you 
fit it to the shoulder and under the arm, so as to 
meet the front. You will thus have an exact pat- 
tern of half of the body, and this is all that is 
necessary, as, of course, you cut both sides, both 
of the front and back, at the same time. The 
linings are to be cut by the pattern, and the silk 
by the linings. You must take care to cut the 
front crosswise of the silk, and in two separate 
pieces, which are afterward joined in the middle. 
If the plait made in the pattern be very large, it 



PLAIN SEWING, ETC. 137 

must be cut out on the silk, or the body will not 
fit well to the shape 5 if small, it may be left : but 
we think that, in all cases, to cut it out is the pre- 
ferable method. 

It is not generally advisable to cut out the half 
of the back all in one piece, as it fits better with 
pieces joined at the sides ; these are called side- 
bodies ; and this method should always be adopt- 
ed, unless the lady has a very flat back : in that 
case, it is best to cut the half all in one piece. 
The backs must be cut straight ; and it is best to 
tack the material to the lining before cutting it. 

Having thus prepared the several parts, begin to 
make the garment, by running or seaming the 
breadths of the skirt together ; and be sure that it 
is made full : a narrow or straight skirt is now 
completely, and very properly, exploded. Run 
the seams as evenly as possible, fastening the ends 
to your knee, or to a pincushion screwed to the 
work-table, to hold them firmly. Run the lining 
together in a similar manner, and fasten each of 
the outside seams to a corresponding one in it ; 
after which turn the edges at the top down on the 
inside, and sew them firmly together. Between 
the lining and the silk it is usual to introduce 
some kind of material, as stiffened muslin or wad- 
ding, to hold the bottom of the dress in its proper 
place. This is fastened to the lining, and the silk 
is hemmed down upon it. Care must be taken 
that no stitches appear on the right side. An 
opening in one of the seams must be left for the 
pocket-hole, which must not exceed one quarter 
of a yard in length. You run the silk and the 
lining together, as at the top, and make a plait 
12* 



138 .MILLINERY, MANTUA-MAKING, 

which is to be folded over on the right side ; this 
is secured at the bottom, and conceals the open- 
ing. Having thus completed the skirt, to wnich 
flounces may be added, or into which tucks may- 
be introduced, if deemed advisable (they seldom 
are in silk dresses,) you proceed to make the 
sleeves, running up a cord on one side of the silk 
or other material, and folding both the silk and the 
lining the same way, you stitch them together, 
and leave an opening at the wrist ; you then turn 
the sleeve, and the edges being on the inside are 
not seen. The sleeve being thus seamed up, it is, 
if full, to be gathered, or done in small plaits at 
the bottom, to the size of the wrist. The gathers, 
or plaits, are set into a narrow band, lined, and you 
cord as you please, or as is most in accordance 
with the prevailing fashion. You next put on the 
trimmings at the top of the sleeve, and then set it 
into the arm-hole with small plaits. Some put on 
the trimmings after the sleeve has been set on to 
the body ; but it is a most incorrect and inconve- 
nient practice. 

The next thing to be done is to put the several 
parts of the body or waist together. This should 
be done slightly, and the body tried on, in order 
that the fit may be made as perfect as possible. 
When this is done, sew the parts firmly together, 
and put a cord over all the joinings except those 
under the arms. Fasten the plaits down on the 
fronts, hem the parts which require it, cut the 
proper shape round the neck, and see that the arm- 
holes are so made as to be easy and agreeable. 
Then hem the back, stitch the dress up the front 
as firmly as you can, and do the same at the shoul- 



PLAIN SEWING, ETC. 139 

ders, the side-bodies, and under the arms j after 
which you must cut a cord or band at the waist, 
and also insert a cord round the neck. This cord- 
ing of the neck and waist require much care and 
attention; for if not done properly, the appear- 
ance of the dress will be spoiled. In case you 
prefer a band to a cord at the waist, it must be 
lined, and the lining put on first, and afterward 
covered with the material of which the dress is 
composed. If there be any trimming on the body, 
it must be put on before the sleeves are set in. A 
cord is to be set round the arm-holes as neatly as 
possible. 

This body being now finished, you have only to 
set it on to the skirt, which is to be doubled more 
in front than at the back, in order to form the 
slope. You gather the part not plaited, and join 
it to the body. In setting on the back, it is best 
not to gather it, but to fold each gather as you pro- 
ceed : this secures an evenness not otherwise 
easily to be obtained. The depth of the slope 
varies, and no certain rule can be given, except 
that in all cases the skirt must be a little shorter 
before than behind ; otherwise much inconve- 
nience will be found in walking, especially where 
it is the fashion to wear the dress of a considera- 
ble length. 

It is often deemed desirable to have a cape to 
the dress of the same material. This is often 
found to be a great convenience ; and no great art, 
though a proper degree of attention is required 
m making it. The lining is to be tacked to the 
silk or stuff, and the cape cut out by a paper pat- 
tern the size and shape required. Before taking 



140 



MILLINERY, MANTUA-MAKING, 



out the tacking thread, a cord should be run in at 
the edges, and these latter are to be turned, and 
the lining sewed down firmly upon them. You 
now take out the thread, and ornament or leave 
the cape plain, just as you please. In making 
flounces, you must remember that they must in all 
cases be cut on the cross, otherwise they will not 
hang with that degree of exactness and freedom 
which is desirable. They are to be run on a cord 
at the top, the size of the skirt, and gathered. 
They should also be corded at the lower edges. 
Sometimes a casing is made at the top of the 
flounce, and the cord run in. This is much to be 
preferred to the common method. 

Tucks, with or without open work between 
them, have an exceedingly neat appearance, and 
never look out of fashion. They are especially 
proper in black and white dresses ; and when they 
are put on, it is essential that they should be cut 
straightwise of the material. To cut them cross- 
wise is decidedly improper. It is sometimes good 
economy to make the sleeves of a dress in two 
separate parts each, so that the lower portion can 
be taken off at pleasure. For an evening dress 
this is found very convenient, as the under part 
will come off at the elbow, and a ruffle of lace can 
be substituted in its place, which gives a short 
sleeve a neat and finished appearance. 

The directions here given apply principally to 
dresses made of stuff or silk, fn those made of 
muslin or calico some slight variations occur 
These latter are not always lined ; indeed, cotton 
prints for summer wear are seldom done so ; but 
the lining of muslin dresses is becoming much 



PLAIN SEWING, ETC. 141 

more common than it was some years since, expe 
rience having shown that the dress when line<\ 
through sits much neater upon the person than h 
does without. In cases where linings are omit- 
ted, a piece of some strong material must be run 
in at the bottom o the skirt, and firmly held down 
with the hem. But we think a thin lining, even 
for the light dresses worn in summer, is to be pre- 
ferred. It is a good plan to set a cord round the 
bottoms of dresses ; they soon wear, but the cord 
is a great advantage, as when it get unsightly, a 
new one can with little trouble be put in its place, 
and the dress remains the same length as before. 

Frocks for both boys and girls are generally 
made with the bodies full, but the pattern must be 
cut plain in paper, the same as in the garments 
intended for persons of more mature age. The 
bodies of children's frocks are often made without 
linings, but, as a general rule, we think the prac- 
tice is exceptionable. The clothing of young per- 
sons should always be made so as to support the 
frame, without cramping its growth, or impeding 
its muscular action by unnecessary and injudicious 
pressure. The skirts of frocks intended for little 
boys are often cut crosswise, and look pretty and 
becoming. In dresses made of figured silk, or 
muslin, or cotton prints (for children,) the tucks 
should always be cut crosswise. This is especi- 
ally to be attended to in plaid patterns. 

Frocks for girls are by some persons directed 
to be made to come high up to the neck. This is 
in our opinion, a practice that should be avoided. 
The body, on the contrary, should be rather low, 
and made to lie firmly upon the projecting part of 



142 MILLINERY, MANTUA-MAKING, 

the shoulder, but not to fall off upon the upper 
arm : this is almost as unsightly as the high body 
we disapprove of. The graceful form of the bust, 
one of the most exquisite productions of creative 
skill, should by no means be concealed ; a neck- 
lace is its proper adornment ; and should it be said 
that the clothing them up to the neck is necessary 
on the score of health, nothing can be farther from 
the truth. In fact, a moderate exposure to the 
action of the sun and air is essential to the posses- 
sion of good health. 

Mantelet. — In the making of this useful and fa- 
vourite article of ladies' attire, there is much va- 
riety in the materials employed. They are some- 
times made of shawling, but more commonly of 
silk, satin, cloth, velvet, and merino. The mante- 
let comes down nearly to the knee, and is lined 
either with silk or muslin, and occasionally with 
glazed cotton cloth. The shape is that of the cape 
of a cloak, and should be cut by a pattern to insure 
accuracy ; five breadths of the material will be re- 
quired, and the neck is hollowed to make it fit 
comfortably ; it can be either gathered into a band 
or set on to a collar. In the latter case, the collar 
must be made to turn over. You trim the mante- 
let in any manner you think the most becoming, 
with velvet, satin, or fur ; or it may be trimmed 
with either fringe or lace. It is neat, and very 
convenient for a lady, either for .a short walk, or 
as a part of a summer's evening dress ; in the lat- 
ter case, the material and lining should be as light 
as possible. 

Ladies' Silk Cloak. — Choose a silk that is of a 
colour not liable to fade, of which six breadths 



PLAIN SEWING, ETC. 143 

are required, and the width of the cloak is five 
breadths ; the length is, of course, made accord- 
ing to the height of the person who is to wear it. 
You cut the shoulder pieces first in paper, taking 
a cloak already made for your guide, and having 
fitted them exactly to the person, lay the paper 
upon the lining, and cut it out ; the silk is cut out 
by the lining ; and be careful to leave sufficient for 
the turnings in. Prepare the collar in the same 
way, pointed at the corners and slanting toward 
the neck ; the collar is hollowed out at the top 
from the front corners, to a sufficient depth be- 
hind, to insure its falling gracefully over the 
shoulders and back. It is lined with silk, between 
which and the outside, stiff muslin is to be intro- 
duced. The shoulder pieces are to have flannel 
or wadding between the silk lining and the mate- 
rial. Those who have no cloak at hand from 
which to take a pattern for the shoulder pieces, 
may obtain one by the following simple method : 
Take a piece of thin paper, and cut it in the shape 
of a round collar ; hollow it out at the top, until it 
will lie over the shoulders perfectly straight and 
close. 

The various parts being thus ready, proceed to 
make up the cloak. First the breadths are to be 
seamed together, so as to show the stitches as lit- 
tle as may be. One breadth is to be thrown to 
the back, and at one nail and a half from the seam 
cut the arm-holes three and a quarter nails long, 
and two and a quarter below the shoulder pieces, 
which are to be next made by running the materi- 
al and the lining together, with the wadding be- 
tween them on the wrong side, and then turning 



144 

them. You next double the three back breadths, 
and hollow them so as to fit the shoulder pieces ; 
into which the whole is afterward to be set in as 
full and even as possible, the two front breadths 
reaching to the shoulder, and all the rest being 
set on to the back. At the distance of four nails 
from the shoulder pieces, plait in the back so as to 
fit the waist ; and a band, of a sufficient length to 
encircle the person, is laid upon the folds behind, 
and drawn to the inside through two apertures cut 
on each side, and worked as button-holes ; this 
band is fastened by buttons or hooks in front. 
Sometimes a riband-case is made on the inside, 
and strings run through it, which answers the same 
end. You next make the collar in the same man- 
ner as you prepared the shoulder-pieces, and set 
it on to the neck. These cloaks are trimmed in 
various ways. The arm-holes, when not in use, 
are concealed by pieces of the silk, three and a 
quarter nails in length, and half a nail in breadth, 
which are lined and set on to one side. They 
must have a row of piping set on all round. You 
may trim the fronts with a hem, one nail and three 
quarters deep, of velvet, cut crosswise; or, if you 
prefer it, you can substitute an edging of fur ; but 
we think that velvet looks the most handsome and 
becoming. The cloak is sewed round the neck 
with silk cord of the same colour, and finished 
with tassels, or an ornamental clasp is adopted ; 
either is suitable, and may be used at pleasure. 

These cloaks are very elegant, when properly 
made. Sometimes they are furnished with capes 
of the same material, which are generally loose, 
and are found very convenient. They maybe worn 



PLAIN SEWING, ETC. 145 

as mantelets, without the cloak, and are made as 
follows : 

Take a sheet of paper as large as you intend 
half the cape to be, and round off the corners so 
as to form it into a perfect circle j double this, and 
from the straight side cut a small half round for 
the neck ; open the pattern, and from the front of 
the inner half circle double one side in a slanting 
direction, for the opening in front. No precise 
rule can be given ; but the paper must be so fitted 
to the person that the fronts may meet when the 
cape is worn. Having got your pattern correct, 
cut out the lining by it, and lastly the silk for the 
cape ; both, but especially the outside, must be 
cut crosswise. The lining and silk are to be neatly 
run together and then turned, and the back seam 
seamed up. The trimming of the cape must be 
the same as that of the cloak. 

A Boy's Cape or Cloak. — This may be made oi 
Scotch plaid or any other suitable material You 
cut an entire circle, as large as you design the 
cloak to be ; in the centre of this, cut a small aper- 
ture, about twice the size of that required for the 
neck, and cut thence to the edge on one side : 
this makes the opening for the front. Gather the 
neck into a band, hem the fronts on the outer edge, 
and the cloak is complete. 



Dressing Table Covers. — These may be made of 
any material that is proper for the purpose. Fine 
diaper generally, but sometimes dimity and muslin 
are employed, or the table is covered with a kind 
of Marseilles quilting, which is prepared expressly 



14G 



MILLINERY, MANTUA-MAKING, 



for the purpose. Sometimes the covers are mere- 
ly hemmed round, but they look much neater if 
fringed, or bordered with a moderately full frill. 
Sometimes a worked border is set on. All de- 
pends upon taste and fancy A neat and genteel 
appearance, in accordance with the furniture of 
the apartment, should be especially regarded. 

Pincushion Covers. — A large pincushion, having 
two covers belonging to it, should belong to each 
toilet table. The covers are merely a bag into 
which the cushion is slipped. They may be eith- 
er worked or plain, and should have small tassels 
at each corner, "and a frill or fringe all round. 

Dinner Napkins. — These are of various materi- 
als : if cut from the piece, they must be hemmed 
at the ends the same as table-cloths. Large and 
small tray napkins, and knife-box cloths, are made 
in the same manner. The hemming of all these 
should be extremely neat. It is a pretty and light 
employment for very young ladies ; and in this 
way habits of neatness and usefulness may be form- 
ed, which will be found vesy beneficial in after 
life. 



\ 



INSTRUCTIONS 

IN 

KNITTING, NETTING, 

AND 

CROTCHET WORK; 

CONTAINING 

THE NEWEST AND MOST FASHIONABLE 



^atbrtts- 



(147) 






TO THE LADIES OF AMERICA. 

It is customary amongst the German ladies to Liave 
at hand some light piece of work, "with which they can 
at any time be employed. When passing the evening 
in one another's society, even when passing a morning 
visit, or after dinner at a dinner party, or while sipping 
coffee, or taking ices at the public gardens, they con- 
sider their knitting or netting needles an indispensable 
accompaniment. And there appears to be a charm in 
the occupation that promotes rather than impedes con- 
versation. 

Our American ladies will doubtless find the custom one 
worthy of imitation. Many an hour which would pass 
tediously if they were forced to find topics of conversa- 
tion, may be whiled pleasantly and profitably away, by 
the assistance of some agreeable employment, which 
interests without engrossing the attention. The facility 
of carrying about almost all species of knitting and net- 
ting render them peculiarly well adapted to this pur- 
pose. 

In the following little work, all the different species 
of knitting, netting, and crotchet, are so carefully ex- 
plained, that a person totally unacquainted with their 
mysteries, may become a proficient with very slight 
pains. The most useful kinds of knitting, as well as 
the more fanciful, have been carefully inserted, and 
many new stitches are now offered to the ladies of 
America, with which we flatter ourselves, they have 
never before been acquainted. 

13 * (149) 



Explanation of the Terms used in Knitting 

A turn means two rows. 

To turn means to change from plain to purled, or the 
reverse. 

A ridge is formed by two rows when knitting with only- 
two pins. 

A loop stitch, sometimes called making a stitch, some- 
times lapping over the thread, is formed by passing the 
thread before the needle, and in knitting the next 
stitch, letting it take its usual place. 

To increase in knitting a Quilt, care should always be 
taken to increase by knitting twice through the last 
stitch, which is done by knitting a stitch, and then, 
without taking out the needle, knitting a second at 
the back. 

To fasten on in knitting. It is a secure fastening to 
lap the two ends contrary-wise to each other, and knit 
a few stitches with them both. 

To narrow or decrease is to make small, to lessen, as in 
shaping a stocking. 

Ribbed stitch, purl stitch, turned or seam stitch, are all 
terms having the same meaning. A turned stitch is 
made by bringing the cotton before the needle, and 
instead of putting the needle over the upper cotton, 
it is put under. 

To slip, take off, or pass a stitch, is to change it from 
one needle to another without knitting it. 

To take under, means to pass the right-hand needle 

through the stitch on the left-hand one, so as still to 

keep the same side cf the stitch towards you. 

(151) 



152 TERMS USED IN KNITTING. 

Welts are the rounds of ribbed stitches done at the top 

of stockings, to prevent their rolling up. 
Cast off, or slip and hind, means to end your work in 
the following manner ; knit 2 stitches, pass the first 
over the second, and continue the same until you 
have but one left, which is finished by passing yDur 
cotton through it. 
To decrease or narrow, is to lessen the number of stitch- 
es by knitting 2 taken together. 
To increase, or make a double stitch, is to knit one stitch 
in the usual way, then, without slipping out the left- 
hand needle, to pass the thread forward and knit a 
second stitch, putting the needle under the stitch. 
The thread must be put back when the stitch is fin- 
ished. 
Hang on means cast on. \ 

Bring the thread forward means to pass it between the 

needles towards you. 
Cast over is a term I believe sometimes used by knitters 
to signify, bring the cotton forward. I have only used 
it to express, bring the cotton over the needle, quitt 
round. 
Round the needle means the same as the last term. 
Reversed means quite round the needle, the cotton being 
passed over the needle, and then carried back to its 
place. 
Together means knit 2 stitches' in 1. 
Set, or Tuft, the bunches of cotton used in making some 

of the fringes. 
To widen means to increase. 

The netting meshes are numbered from the knitting 
needle gauge, as I am not aware there is any other rule 
for them. 






KNITTING, NETTING, AND CROTCHET WORK. 

FOUR BEAUTIFUL PATTERNS 

Of Lace Edgings for Collars, Dresses, fyc. 

By means of the following directions every lady 
can provide herself with lace edgings of the most 
durable kinds, and without either much expense or 
trouble. These laces, when knit with fine thread 
and small needles, are exceedingly pretty. When 
they are intended for common wear, or to trim the 
bottom of petticoats, they should be knit with nee- 
dles of the ordinary size, and coarse cotton They 
wash well, and wear a long time. After a little 
practice, a great facility in knitting them is acquir- 
ed, and the work progresses with a rapidity which 
young beginners are apt to despair of obtaining. 

Cast on 8 stitches. — 1st row, — take off the first 
stitch without knitting it, knit plain the 2 next, lap 
in the thread once, take offl stitch, knit 1, slip and 
bind, knit 1, lap in the thread twice, knit 1, lap 
in the thread twice, knit 1. 

2nd row — knit plain 2 stitches, seam 1 and put 

(153) 



154 KNITTING, NETTING, 

back your thread, knit 2, seam 1 and put back your 
thread, knit 2, seam 1 and put back your thread, 
knit 3. 

3rd row, — take off the first stitch, knit 2, lap in 
the thread, take off 1, knit 1, slip and bind, knit the 
rest. 

4th row — knit the two first, slip and bind, knit 
and slip and bind until only 7 stitches are on the 
left hand needle and 1 on the other, knit 3, seam 1 
and put back your thread, knit the rest. 

Cast on 11 stitches. — 1st row, — take off the first 
stitch, knit 2, lap in the thread, take off 1, knit 1, 
slip and bind, knit 1, lap in the thread, take oft 
1, knit 1, slip and bind, knit 1, lap in thread twice, 
knit 1, lap in the thread twice, knit 1. 

2nd row, — knit 2, seam 1 and put back your 
thread, knit 2, seam 1 and put back your thread, 
knit 2, seam 1 and put back your thread, knit 2, 
seam 1 and put back your thread, knit 3. 

3rd row, — take off 1, knit 2, lap in the thread, 
take off 1, knit 1, slip and bind, knit 1, lap in the 
thread, take off 1, knit 1, slip and bind, knit the rest 

4th row, — knit 2, slip and bind, knit and slip and 
bind until only 10 stitches are on the left hand nee- 
dle and 1 on the other, knit 3, seam 1 and put back 
your thread, knit 2, seam 1 and put back your 
thread, knit the rest. 

Cast on 11 stitches. — 1st row, — knit 3, make 1, 
narrow 1, knit 1, make 1, narrow 1, make 2, nar- 
row 1, knit 1. 

2nd row, — knit 3, seam 1, and put back your 



AND CROTCHET WORK. 155 

thread, knit 2, make 1, narrow 1, knit 1, make 1, 
narrow 1, knit 1. 

3rd row, — knit 3, make 1, narrow 1, knit 1, make 
1, narrow 1, knit 4. 

4th row, — knit 2, slip and bind, knit 4, make 1, 
narrow 1, knit 1, make 1, narrow 1, knit 1. 

Cast on 7 stitches. — 1st row, — take off 1 stiteh, 
knit 2, lap in the thread once, narrow 1, lap in the 
thread twice, narrow 1. 

2nd row, — make 1 stitch, knit 2, seam 1, put 
back your thread, knit 1, lap in the thread once, 
narrow 1, knit 2. 

3rd row, — take off 1, knit 2, lap in the thread 
once, narrow 1, lap in the thread twice, narrow 1, 
lap in the thread twice, narrow ] . 

4th row — make 1, knit 2, seam 1 and put back 
your thread, knit 2, seam 1 and put back your thread, 
knit 1, lap in the thread once, narrow 1, knit 2.« 

5th row, — take off 1, knit 2, lap in the thread 
once, narrow 1, knit 7. 

6th row, — knit 8, lap in the thread once, narrow 
1, knit 2. 

7th row, — take ofF 1, knit 2, lap in the thread 
once, narrow 1, lap in the thread twice, narrow 1, 
lap in the thread twice, narrow, lap in the thread 
twice, narrow 1, knit 1. 

8th row, — knit 3, seam 1 and put back your 
thread, knit 2, seam 1 and put back your thread, 
knit 2, seam 1 and put back your thread, knit 1, lap 
in the thread once, narrow 1, knit 2. 

9th row, — take off 1, knit 2, lap in the thread 
once, narrow 1, knit 10. 



156 KNITTING, NETTING, 

10th row, — knit and slip and bind 8, leaving 6 
on the other needle, then knit 2, lap in the thread 
once, narrow 1, knit 2. 



A baby's sock. 

With 2 colors done in stripes and double German 
lambs'-wool. 

Cast on 26 stitches, knit a plain row with the 
first color : fasten on the second, knit a row, adding 
a stitch at the end for the heel, and back again ; 
then take the first color, knit a row adding another 
stitch and back again ; continue the same alternate- 
ly, but without adding any more stitches for the heel 
until there are 6 ridges of each color, then with the 
first knit a row, and in coming back cast off 15 
stitches, beginning from the end at which you ad- 
ded two stitches, knit the 13 that are left ; with the 
second color knit a row and back again, then knit 
a row and back again with the first, and continue 
the same until you have four ridges of the second 
and three of the first color : then with the first color 
knit the 13 stitches, add 15 and knit back again. 
Finish this side like the other, only decreasing for 
the heel. It is then sewed up in the shape of a 
shoe. Take four needles, pick up the 36 stitches 
round the instep, putting 12 on each of three nee- 
dles, and knit two rounds plain, then pass the 
lambs'-wool forward (so as to form a stitch), slip a 
stitch and knit 2 plain, then pull the slipped stitch 
over the 2 knitted ones, pass the lambs'-wool for- 



P c " 

-. (D 3 
O 1 P- 









II 



AND CROTCHET WORK. 157 

"ward, and repeat this for one round, continue plain 
knitting for an inch ; after that rib 4 rows, knit 4, 
rib 4, knit 2, and cast off. 



baby's socks. 1st size. 

Two ivory needles No. 12, and 3->ply fleecy, are re- 
quired. 

Cast on 24 stitches ; knit 2 plain rows, add one 
stitch ; knit 2 more rows and add another stitch 
which forms the heel ; then continue knitting until 
you can count 10 ridges ; cast off 14 stitches begin- 
ning from where you added on for the heel : knit 6 
more ridges, add on 14 stitches, and make this side 
to match with the other, decreasing for the heel. 
Pick up the 14 loops on each side and the six in 
the middle, and put them all on one needle : knit a 
plain row, then a row of holes for the ribbon to 
pass through, which is done in this manner : — begin 
with the lambs'-wool forward, slip a stitch, knit the 
next, and pass the slipped stitch over the knitted 
one ; after this row is finished knit 8 ridges. 



baby's mufflers. 



In German Wool, with four needles No. 19. 

Cast on 53 stitches (the width round). Knit 32 

rounds in ribs of one stitch ; the seam is made by 

ribbing* the middle stitch of one needle everv other 

round. Knit 3 rounds plain knitting, and begin the 

14 



158 KNITTING, NETTING, 

thumb by increasing one stitch in the middle oppo- 
site the seam. Make a seam-stitch on each side of 
it. Every third row, increase 2 stitches ivithin the 
seam-stitches of the thumb, until it has 21 stitches ; 
knit the thumb round, making a seam up from 
where it leaves the hand ; knit 14 rounds, then de- 
crease every 3rd stitch in every 3rd round until on- 
ly 6 stitches are left, cast them off together. To 
finish the hand, take up 3 stitches at the bottom of 
the thumb to prevent a hole, and knit round ; rr ake 
a seam to correspond with that which is on the oth- 
er side, and every 3rd round decrease one stitch on 
each side the seam where the thumb joins until on- 
ly 4S are left. Knit 12 rounds ; then decrease one 
stitch on\each v side of each seam, twice, every 3rd 
round, twice, every 2nd, afterwards decrease every 
round until 16 stitches are left, which cast off to- 




gether. 



CHILD'S SOCK, TO BE WORN WITH SHOES 

In German Wool, with four needles Mo. 21. 

Cast on 65 stitches, 22 on two needles and 21 on 
the third (turn the 11th on this needle every other 
round for the seam)"; when you have done 60 turn- 
ed stitches (that is 120 rounds), divide 33 stitch- 
es for the heel (the middle stitch is the seam-stitch), 
and 32 for the instep ; knit the stitches for the heel 
until you have 20 turns (the back rows are ribbed) 
for the length of the heel ; divide the stitches and 
ioin it up. Take up 20 stitches on each side of the 




AND CROTCHET WORK. 159 

neel, make a seam on each side of the instep, and 
take up a stitch in the loop before the first and after 
the last stitch on the instep needle (this is to pre- 
vent there being holes in the corners). Then nar- 
row every second round on the heel side of the 
seams, until you have the same number of stitches 
as on the instep. Knit 20 rounds and narrow for 
the toe, which is done by taking two stitches to- 
gether on each side the seams ; repeat this twice, 
knitting 3 rounds between, again, knitting two 
rounds between, then twice, knitting one round, 
then in every round until you have 14 stitches, 
which divide and cast off. 



KNEE CAPS IN LAMBS'-WOOL. 

Very coarse needles. + 

Begin with 36 stitches ; knit 8 or 12 rows, ac- 
cording to the size wished for ; knit 15 stitches, 
make a stitch, knit 6, make a stitch, knit the rest. 
Add 2 in the same manner every other row until 
you have 52 on the needle. Knit 12 or 16 rows, 
and decrease in the same proportion in which you 
augmented. Sew the ends together. 



EVENING CARRIAGE SHOES. 

They should be made in 2 colors, for instance, broum 
and blue. Two needles only are required. 

Cast on 60 stitches of the brown lambs'- wool ; 



160 KNITTING, NETTING, 

knit a plain row ; begin the next row with knitting 
4 stitches of blue, slip 2 brown stitches, knit 4 blue, 
and so on to the end of the row, which will end 
with 2 slipped stitches ; slip them again next row, 
rib the blue and slip the brown stitches to the end 
of the row : the next row is plain knitting, still 
slipping the brown stitches ; the 4th row is ribbed 
back slipping the brown stitches as before. Now 
knit two plain rows with the brown lambs'-wool, 
knitting the slipped stitches ; then rib 2 rows still 
with the brown. Knit 1 blue stitch, slip 2 brown, 
knit 4 blue, and so on to the end of the row. This 
is the same as the 2nd row, except that the two 
brown slipped stitches are to be over the centre of 
the four blue ones ; this you must be careful to ob- 
serve, so that four of the blue squares form a dia- 
mond. All the slipped stitches are taken under, 
so as not to twist them. 

When you think the shoe is long enough cast off. 
Double it lengthways, and sew up the ends : put a 
bit of fringe round it, run in a string, and although 
it will look like an oblong square, if you put it on, 
you will find it fit very well. 

This pattern is pretty for sofa cushions, quilts, 
tidies, &c. 



PLAIN MITTENS. 

Needles No. 17, six needles required. 

Cast 24 stitches on each of 3 needles, with the 4th 
knit 3 stitches and rib 3 alternately, until you have 



AND CROTCHET WORK. 161 

done about an inch in depth (or, if you prefer it, 
you can rib the mitten all through) ; knit plain 
rather more than another inch, and begin increas- 
ino- for the thumb by making a stitch in the middle 
of a row ; this stitch is made by taking up a stitch 
between two stitches ; knit a plain round ; take up 
a stitch before the stitch you made, and another af- 
ter it ; continue making two stitches every other 
round until you have 25 stitches for the thumb ; 
knit round until you come to the thumb ; take the 
12 stitches on each side of the thumb on the other 2 
needles, and with two additional needles divide the 
stitches for the thumb into three ; join up the thumb 
by knitting round, and cast off when it is sufficient- 
ly long ; then begin knitting the mitten again, ta- 
king up a few stitches (about 7) at the bottom of 
the thumb, to prevent' there being a hole there ; it 
likewise makes the mitten sit better ; decrease 
these stitches until you have the original number 
left ; knit about 10 rounds, and begin ribbing in 
threes again : when the mitten is long enough, cast 
off. 

These mittens made in fine lambs'-wool are very 
warm to wear over gloves in winter. 

It may be observed, that all mittens are made on 
the same plan, except that in fancy knitting, it is 
generally necessary to make double stitches for the 
increase, instead of taking them up between the 
stitches. 

14* 



162 KNITTING, NETTING, 

NETTED MITTENS. 

A quarter of an ounce of silk is required : it should 
be even and free from knots. 

Net 60 stitches on a round foundation; net 24 
rounds : at the 25th round net 22 stitches, net 2 in 
the 22nd stitch, net 6 plain stitches, and at the 7th 
add a second stitch. 

The next round is plain netting. Add 2 stitches 
every other round, until you have 72 rounds ; then 
separate the stitches you have added with the 6 in 
the middle (32 in number) for the thumb ; net the 
first and last together, and diminish gradually until 
you think it small enough ; make it as long as you 
please, and cut off your silk : tie the silk on neatly 
at the join of the thumb to continue your mitten, 
add 4 stitches, 2 on each side of the join, and make 
it as long as you think necessary. To finish it, 
either work an edge, or sew on a narrow lace the 
color of the mitten, and work the back by darning 
in the diamonds, formed by the netting, for the fin- 
ger marks. 



LAMBS'-WOOL MUFFATEES. 



Four needles are required, JVb. 14. 

Cast on each of 3 needles 18 or 24 stitches, ac- 
cording to the size you want your muffatee, and 
with the fourth needle knit 3 and rib 3 stitches al- 
ternately, until your muffatee is long enough. 



AND CROTCHET WORK. 163 



DRIVING MUFFATEES. 



Begin as for the preceding muffatees, only with 
coarser needles and fleecy. Knit 3 or 4 inches, then 
begin double knitting on much coarser needles; 
knit about 6 inches, and cast off. Sew up the 
opening at the side. This makes a very warm 
muffatee for driving in cold weather. 



CORKSCREW MUFFATEES. 

Four needles No. 16 are required. Five skeins of 
German lambs' -wool are used for each muffatee ; 
the two first and two last skeins should be alike, 
and the middle one white. 

Cast 24 stitches on each of 3 needles; knit 2 
rounds of 3 stitches plain, and 3 ribbed alternately ; 
knit 3 rounds, knitting on every needle the^r^ two 
stitches and the last one plain, the intervening 
stitches being knitted 3 ribbed and 3 plain alter- 
nately. When you come to the next 3 rounds, 
knit the first and two last stitches plain ; after that 
knit 3 rounds of 3 stitches ribbed, and 3 plain al- 
ternately; then 3 rounds, the first 2 and the last 1 
stitches ribbed, and between knit 3 plain and 3 rib- 
bed; then rib the 1st and 2 last stitches for 3 
rounds : begin the whole pattern again, only knit- 
ting 3 rounds instead of 2, of 3 stitches plain and 
3 ribbed. 









1 04 KNITTING, NETTING, 



FRINGE. 

No. 1. 

A skein of knitting cotton must be cut into 8 
lengths for the fringe ; or, if 'you wish your fringe 
to be very deep, cut your skein into 4 or 6. The 
most convenient way is to divide these lengths into 
sets containing 3 threads in each, and lay them be- 
fore you : then with a ball of the same cotton, and 
two steel needles, which should be rather coarse, 
cast on 8 stitches, and knit 1 row plain : begin the 
next row by knitting the 2 first stitches plain, bring 
the cotton forward, knit 2 stitches taken together, 
by this means you make a loop stitch ; take 1 of 
the sets of cotton, put the ends even, double it in 
half and loop it over the needle you are knitting 
with, forward; knit 1 stitch, pass the set back be- 
tween the needles, knit 2 stitches, bring the set for- 
ward again, and knit the last stitch. The back 
rows are plain knitting ; you must be careful to 
take the whole head of the set with the 4th stitch, 
which leaves 4 to be knitted plain, and you have 8 
as at the beginning ; after finishing this row, give 
the set or tuft a pull down, which puts it in its 
right place, before beginning another. 



FRINGE. 

No. 2. 



Cast on 9 stitches. Slip the 1st stitch, knit the 
2nd and 3rd, bring the thread forward, knit 2 to- 



AND CROTCHET WORK. 165 

gether, knit 1, turn the thread forward, knit 2 to- 
gether, knit the last. When you have the length 
you want, cast off 5 stitches, and unravel the 4 
others, which form the fringe. 

This fringe may be made wider by casting on 12 
or 15 stitches. 



HERRINGBONE PURSE. 

Two needles only are required for this knitting. 

Cast on 88 stitches, begin with the silk forward, 
slip a stitch, knit a stitch, pass the 1st over the 2nd, 
knit a stitch, bring the silk forward and rib the 
next. When this is done, the silk will be forward ; 
begin again. 

If the purse be required to be longer, cast on as 
many stitches as are necessary, observing that it 
must be a number which can be divided by four. 



A STRONG PURSE. 

With 2 steel needles and coarse netting silk cast 
on 60 stitches, knit the first, bring the silk forward, 
slip a stitch, knit the next, and pull the slipped 
stitch over the knitted one, bring the silk forward 
and begin again. The second row is simple knit- 
ting 



166 KNITTING, NETTING, 



PORCUPINE KNITTING TOR A PUE.SE. 

Four fine needles, nearly 3 skeins of netting silk, 
and one string of gold beads are required. Thread 
some of the beads on the silk before you begin. 

Cast 36 stitches on each of 3 needles, knit a plain 
round ; knit 4 stitches, bring the silk forward, knit 
a stitch — this is the centre stitch of the pattern — 
brino - the silk forward, knit 4 stitches, slip a stitch, 
taking it under, knit 2 taken together, pull the slip- 
ped stitch over it, then begin knitting the 4 stitches, 
&c. ; it is better at the end of each needle to knit a 
stitch off the next one, as it prepares for the next 
round. Continue thus for 6 rounds, increasing be- 
fore and after every centre stitch, and knitting till 
within 1 of where you decreased, which stitch slip, 
knit the next 2 together, and pull the slipped stitch 
over it. Knit a plain round. Knit another round 
plain, excepting over the centre stitches, where you 
are to knit a bead, bringing it through the stitch. 
Knit a plain round, keeping the beads on the outside 
of the purse. (This purse is knitted wrong side 
outwards.) Knit to within one stitch of the bead 
stitch, which slip ; knit 2 together : these 6 rounds, 
increase each side of the stitch you decreased with 
in the last pattern, which makes that the centre 
stitch for the bead. 

It is easy to count the number of rounds you 
have done, at the place where you decreased. 

This pattern is very pretty for a boa, knitted 
with German lambs'-wool and needles No. ]5. 



AtfD CROTCHET WORK. 167 



SPOTTED PURSE. 

Cast on 69 stitches; take off the 1st stitch, bring 
the silk forward, slip a stitch, knit 2, pass the slip- 
Dec] stitch over the 2 last, repeat this to the end of 
the row. The back rows are ribbed. 

This pattern is very pretty in two colors, chang- 
ing them every 2 rows. 



ANOTHER PURSE. 

First row : slip a stitch, knit a stitch, pass the 
first stitch over the second ; repeat this to the end 
of the row. Second row : bring the silk forward 
every time. 

This is a very rfretty stitch for d'oyleys with a 
plain border. Any even number of stitches may be 
set up. 



A NET PURSE IN POINTS. 

Fifty stitches long and 80 rows wide, of a mid- 
dle-sized silk and mesh. Net 31 stitches with one 
color, and back again ; then 28, 25, 22, 19, and 
Lack again to each; then with the other color be- 
gin at the distance of 19 stitches, and net until you 
meet the side already done : pass the needle through 
the stitch to connect them. Half a point is now 
i lone, you reverse the number of stitches to com- 
plete it. 

It is also very pretty if the points are made long- 



168 KNITTING, NETTING, 

er, say 45 stitches, decreasing by four stitches every 
other row, until you leave only 5 for the other point. 



CORKSCREW NETTING FOR A PURSE. 

Two different colored silks are required, for instance, 

brovm and blue ; 1 mesh, and 2 needles ; thread 

each of the needles with one color. A round 

foundation, consisting of 60 stitches, should be 

used. 

Join both needles on together, net with the brown 
30 stitches, then begin with the blue and net the 
other 30 stitches ; net the blue silk back and con- 
tinue it over 6 stitches of the brown ; now take the 
needle with brown, pass it through the blue stitch, 
and net till you meet the needle with blue, turn 
back (still with the brown silk), and net round till 
you have gone over 6 blue stitches ; net with the 
blue again, passing the needle through the brown 
stitch ; continue thus advancing each color 6 
stitches at one side and receding at the other, till 
the purse is one-third long enough, then begin the 
opening, which is made by omitting to pass the silk 
through the stitch at one place; the pattern you 
must carry on as before, for which you will be 
obliged to fasten on your silk to fill up where you 
recede 



and crotchet work. 1g9 

d'oyleys. 
Two needles are required. 

Cast on 86 stitches, knit a row of two stitches 
plain and two ribbed. In the 2nd row, rib the 
stitches that were plain in the first row, and knit 
plain those that were ribbed. In the 3rd row, rib 
the stitches that were ribbed in the last row, and 
knit plain those that were knitted plain. 4th row, 
rib the plain stitches and knit the ribbed ones. Re- 
peat these four rows five times. 2nd pattern in the 
d'oyley, continue the first pattern for 10 stitches, 
then knit, putting the cotton twice round the needle 
every stitch until you have only 10 left on the nee- 
dle, knit them like the 10 first ; these ten stitches 
on each side form the border, and are always the 
same pattern knit the next three rows plain, ex- 
cept the border ; then repeat the first row of this 
pattern ; knit 3 rows ; the border as before. 3rd 
row, begin with the cotton forward, knit two in one, 
bring the cotton forward, &c, until you come to 
the border again ; knit 3 plain rows, repeat these 
4 rows 3 times, and begin the 2nd pattern again ; 
continue these two patterns alternately, until the 
d'oyley is nearly square, then finish w T ith the same 
width of border as at the top. 

For this knitting, your cotton and needles should 
be rather fine. 

N. B. Many of the patterns given as purse stitch- 
es are very pretty for d'oyleys, with a border either 
of plain or fancy knitting. 



170 KNITTING, NETTING, 



SAVE-ALL BAG. ~n^ 

Four coarse needles are required. This bag is so 
called because it may be made with odds and ends 
of netting silk, or all of one color, at pleasure. 

Cast 40 stitches on each of 3 needles ; knit one 
plain round ; then knit one stitch, bring the silk for- 
ward, knit a stitch, thus forming a loop-stitch in 
addition to the original number, knit a stitch, bring 
the silk forward, and continue as before for the 
whole round. Next round, knit a stitch, bring the 
silk forward, knit two stitches (the loop and that 
next it) together ; knit a stitch, bring the silk for- 
ward, and knit two together, until the bag is long 
enough. 

This bag looks well with a clasp, and a tassel at 
the bottom. 



MOSS-STITCH, TO MAKE A. THICK BAG. 

Two needles are required. 

Moss-stitch can be done with any even number 
of stitches. Take off the first stitch, pass the cotton 
forward, rib a stitch, pass the cotton back, and knit 
one plain, pass it forward, rib a stitch, pass it back, 
and so on to the end of the row. In the second row, 
rib and knit alternate stitches. It may be knitted ei- 
Iher with four or t\vo needles. 







AND CROTCHET WORK. 



DOUBLE KNITTING. 



171 



For double knitting, you may cast on any even 
number of stitches ; bring the thread forward, slip a 
stitch, pass the thread back, knit a stitch, putting 
the thread twice round the needle. This repeated 
forms the pattern. 

You will find in the next row you take off the 
knitted stitch. Should you prefer beginning with 
a knitted stitch, pass the thread but once round the 
needle in every first stitch, as this will form a firmer 
edge. 



DOUBLE BLANKET 



This blanket is very light and warm. Two large 
wooden pins are required. It takes 2 pounds and 
a half of lambs' -wool to make one A feet wide, 
and 5 long. 

Put on 250 stitches, knit 10 simple rows ; then 
begin and end each row with 6 stitches in plain 
knitting ; the rest of the row is double knitting, 
putting the wool twice round the pin. The border 
is frequently made of a different color from the mid- 
dle ; in this case the two balls of wool are passed 
once round each other, so as to loop the wool every 
time. 



172 KNITTING, NETTING, 



A GENTLEMAN'S COMFORTER. DOUBLE KNITTING. 

Two coarse steel needles are necessary, and 5 skeim 
of fine knitting yarn. 

Cast on 72 stitches ; knit the first stitch putting 
the yarn only once round your needle, bring the 
yarn forward, slip a stitch, pass the yarn back 
again, knit a stitch, passing the yarn twice round 
the needle : continue knitting in double knitting 
with the yarn twice round the needle, until the 
comforter is long enough. In the last row, before 
you cast off, the yarn should be passed round the 
needle only once. Small comforters to cover the 
chest in riding are made in the same way. 



A. COMFORTABLE COMFORTER. 

Cast on 50 stitches ; knit 44 turns plain knitting, 
decrease one stitch in five, until you have only 40 
in the row ; knit 6 turns, then decrease again 10 
stitches in the row; knit 18 turns, increase 10 
stitches in the row ; knit 6 turns, increase 10 stitch- 
es in the row; knit 44 turns, and cast off. 



DOUBLE KNITTED SHAWL. 

Begin with one stitch ; increase a stitch every 
other row, which will make one side slant ; knit 
plain knitting until you have 9 stitches, 7 of which 
ae for the border; these are knitted in plain knit- 



AND CROTCHET WORK. 



173 



.ing throughout; with the other stitches begin 
double knitting, as before. When your shawl is 
nearly large enough, knit a few rows of plain knit- 
ting to correspond with the border on. the other 
side. 



DOUBLE KNITTED SHAWL, WITH COLORED BORDER. 

This shawl is knitted in precisely the same way 
as the one above, except that you begin with the 
color you mean to have for the border : when you 
have 7 stitches, you must pass the white round it 
and knit in the end. Every time you come to the 
border you pass the colored and white lambs'-wool 
round each other, thus looping them together. 



PINCUSHION COVER. LEAF PATTERN. 

This 'pattern is knitted with 4 needles No. 18. 

Cast 45 stitches on each of 3 needles (15 being 
required for each stripe). First round, begin with 
the cotton forward, purl 2 stitches, pass the cotton 
back, knit one, taking it at the back, purl 2, pass 
the cotton back, slip one stitch, knit one, pull the 
slipped stitch over the knitted one ; knit 6 ; bring 
the cotton forward, knit one, this increases two 
loop-stitches ; repeat this all round. You will find 
you have increased one stitch in every 15. 2nd 
round; begin with the cotton forward, purl 2 
stitches, knit one, taking it at the back, purl 2, slip 
one, knit one, pull the slipped stitch over the knitted 
15 * 



174 KNITTING, NETTING, 

one, knit plain until you come to the next purled 
stitches, and continue as before. In this and every 
alternate round, no loop-stitches are to be made, 
but the purled stripes and the decrease to be done 
as before, which will reduce the stitches to the 
original number. Knit these rounds alternately, 
making the 2 holes (which occur in every alter- 
nate round) one stitch sooner each time, t. e. knit- 
ting 5, then 4, then 3, then 2, then one, instead of 
six stitches as mentioned in the first round. You 
will then have six rows of holes, which completes 
the leaf, and you will find the holes brought to the 
side of the stripe opposite to that on which they 
began ; you must then begin again as at first. 
Nine rounds of leaves complete a pincushion. 



KNITTED KETTLE HOLDER. 

In two colors; for instance, red and blue. 

Cast on 36 stitches with the red yarn, knit a row, 
then knit 6 stitches with the red and 6 with the 
blue alternately ; when you change the color, pull 
the yarn rather tight at the back of the other color, 
which will make the stitches stand up in a round 
when finished ; in the next row, every time you 
change the color of the yarn, you must bring that 
you have done with forward, and pass the other 
back. When you can count 4 ridges of blue on 
the. right side, make the red stitches to come over 
the blue, and the blue ones over the red : the 
side squares should be kept flat; when big enough 
knit a row, cast off, and line it. 



AND CROTCHET WORK. 



NETTED CURTAIN. 



175 



Two meshes are required, one rather more than a 
quarter of an inch wide, the other rather more 
than three-quarters of an inch; your netting nee- 
dles must be large, and your cotton rather coarse. 

Begin with 350 stitches ; net 20 rows with the 
small mesh ; then thread your needle with double 
cotton, and net a row with the wide mesh, netting 
2 stitches in every stitch. Net a row with the 
small mesh, being careful to take the double stitch 
as only one, net another row with the small mesh, 
repeat the double stitch row with the large mesh, 
and begin again. 

N. B. One of the knitted fringes looks well with 
this curtain. 



NETTED SCARF. 



Three hundred and sixty stitches wide on a large 
mesh, net 12 rows ; then net 5 rows on a smaller 
mesh; then 12 on the large, and so on until it is 
wide enough. Sew it up and put tassels to it. 

N. B. It is three yards long. 



176 KNITTING, NETTING, 

TREBLE DIAMOND NETTING, 

Is pretty lined nith silk as a quilt, or to cover a ta~ 
hie. The number of stitches depends on the size 
of the mesh, and the quantity required. It is al- 
so very pretty for a purse, d'oyley, or fish nap- 
kin* 

Begin with netting 3 stitches once round the pin 
or mesh, 1 twice round the pin, 3 once, 1 twice, and 
so on to the end of the row ; observing to end with 
3 once round the pin. 

Second row ; 1 twice round the pin, 2 once round, 
slip them off the pin, and take the first stitch at 
full length ; net the long stitch you made the last 
row, and the next stitch long too, then 2 short stitch- 
es, slip them off your pin, and so on to the end of 
the row. 3rd row ; 1 stitch twice round the pin, 1 
stitch once ; slip them off and take the first at its 
full length on again ; net the 2 next, then net 1 
long, 1 short, slip it off; net the 2 next, then 1 long, 
1 short, slip off, and so on to the end of the row. 
4th row : 1 short stitch, 2 long, 2 short, to the end 
of the row. 5th row : 1 short, 1 twice round, 3 
once round the pin ; 1 twice, 3 once to the end of 
the row. 6th row : 1 short, 2 long, 2 short to the 
end. 7th row : 1 long, 1 short, 1 long, 1 short, 
slip it off, 1 long, 1 short, 1 long, 1 short, slip it off 
(the other short stitches are close to the pin). 8th 
row: 3 close to the pin, 1 long, to the end; then 
begin with the first row again. 

* If made for a fish napkin or d'oyley, a fringe should be net* 
ted round. 



AND CROTCHET WORK. 177 



SINGLE DIAMOMD NETTING. 

First row : every other stitch twice round the 
pin. 2nd row : every alternate stitch is a loop- 
stitch. 



TUFT NETTING. 

In every other row in each alternate stitch, net 
3 or 4 additional stitches, which are to be left 
loose, not being caught up with the stitch they are 
netted in, in netting the next row. 



NIGHT STOCKING. 

Four needles required. 

Fifty-four stitches on large pins, turning every 
every other stitch, and lessening a little gradually 
towards the end. 



ANOTHER NIGHT STOCKING 

Cast 18 stitches on each of three needles, and 
rib in threes as for a stocking, for about an inch. 
Then begin double knitting, by knitting the first 
stitch, pass the wool forward, and take off a stitch 
from the opposite needle, pass the wool back again, 
knit a stitch, putting your wool twice round the 
needle ; continue in the same way, until you have 



178 KNITTING, NETTING, 

got all your stitches on one needle, and continue 
common double knitting : cast off when the stock- 
ing is long enough. 

N. B. It is less troublesome if before you begin 
the double knitting you get all your stitches on two 
pins. 

The yarn and needles should be coarse. 



TO KNIT A QUILT IN STRIPES. 

If a border be wished for, each stripe should be 
begun with the same number of rows, first of simple 
knitting; then of simple and ribbed knitting alter- 
nately : the two side stripes should have a border 
to correspond with that at the bottom. 



TWISTED COLUMN QUILT. 

Care must be taken in casting on the stitches to 
have a number which can be divided by 8, without 
leaving any remainder. 3 needles are required 
(steel are best.) After knitting the rows for the 
border, begin by knitting 8 purled and 8 plain 
stitches to the end of the row : every alternate row 
is plain knitting. Repeat these rows 7 times, end- 
ing with a purled and plain row. The next row 
forms the twist ; knit the 8 plain stitches, then take 
off 4 on the third pin ; knit the 4 following stitches 
and then those you have taken off; knit the 8 plain 
stitches; take off 4 on the third pin, knit the 4 fol- 
lowing, then those you have taken off, and repeal 



AND CROTCHET WORK. 179 

the same to the end of the row. Begin again. In 
joining the stripes together care must be taken that 
the patterns join well, and as cotton frequently 
shrinks in washing, it is advisable to make youi 
quilt rather larger than you wish it to be when 
finished. 



MOSS-STITCH FOR A QUILT. 

May be made any width. Take off the first 
stitch, pass the cotton forward, rib a stitch, pass the 
cotton back and knit 1 plain, pass it forward, rib a 
stitch, &c. to the end of the row. Every row is 
exactly the same. The same stitches you knit 
plain and rib in one row, you knit plain and rib in 
the next. 



IMITATION CORAL. 

Two steel needles No. 14 are required, and a skein oj 
coral-colored narrow worsted braid. 

Cast on 3 stitches ; take off the first, and knit 
the other 2 in each row. Every row is exactly the 
same. 



INSERTION. 



Cast on 9 stitches, take off a stitch, knit 2, cast 
over and knit 2 together ; knit 1, cast over and knit 
2 together j purl 1. Every row is the same 



180 KNITTING, NETTING, 

GARTERS. 

Two needles No. 14, and German lambs 9 -wool. 

Cast on 18 stitches. Knit in double knitting 
backwards and forwards until the garter #1 s long 
enough. End with a point. 



RIBBED CEPHALINE. 

Two needles No. 10, 8 skeins of scarlet German 
lambs'-wool and 5 of white. 

Cast on 100 stitches. Knit T row ; rib 1 row, 
and continue to knit and rib one row alternately 
until you have done 9 rows without the casting on. 
Cut off the colored and fasten on the white wool 
Knit and rib one row alternately for 7 rows ; thus 
ending with one plain knitted row. Purl 2 rows 
with the colored wool. (These rows are both done 
with the colored wool to make the joining of the 
two colors neat on the right side.) Knit and rib 
alternate rows until you have 9 rows of the colored. 
Repeat these stripes of colored and white wool until 
you have 6 of colored and 5 of white. Cast off. 

Draw the ribs together, and sew on a string of 
satin ribbon at each end to tie under the chin. 



DOUBLE NETTING FOR A MITTEN 

Begin on the round foundation of 72 or 74 stitch- 
es. Mesh No. 13, and 2 netting needles threaded 




Fig. 1. Jewess Cap.— This is made 
of alternately b'ack and white lane, 
intermingled with velvet ribands. 
Large nceud and bows of silk and 
velvet ribands at the side. 




Fig. 2. Cap, ornamented at the 
sides with tufts of narrow riband 
in round loops, and over the 
crown with the same riband 
crossing in diamonds. 




Fig. 3. Is a Cap of English embroid- 
ery, in the form of a capote. 




F 1 ?. 4. Is a Cap of inserting and 
bouillionn6 muslin, and of Va- 
lenciennes inserting, the crown 
being of the former, and the face 
and cape of the latter. Brides 
and trimming of white moire 
riband. 



AND CROTCHET WORK. 181 

with different colors, for instance, pink and black ; 
the silk should be very fine. Fasten on both nee- 
dles at once. Leave the black silk on your left 
hand and net one stitch with the pink, put the nee- 
dle down with your left hand,* net 1 stitch with the 
black. Continue this alternate netting; throughout 
the mitten, always netting the pink stitches with pink 
and the black with black. When you have netted 
4 rounds, net 1 round, putting the silk twice round 
the mesh. Net 12 stitches and begin to increase for 
the thumb by netting 2 stitches in the 13th and 14th 
stitches, that is, first a pink, then a black in each ; 
net 6 stitches, increase as before, finish the round 
and continue to increase in the same manner over 
the last increase stitches every 4th round for 5 times. 
Net three rounds and join up the thumb stitches by 
netting round ; decrease by taking 2 stitches as 1, if 
necessary. Finish the thumb with two rounds of 
the black silk on a rather finer mesh. In the 1st 
round take two stitches as one. 

Join on at the bottom of the thumb : net till the 
mitten is nearly long enough, and finish it like the 
thumb. 

A round netted on at the top w T ith double silk and 
a mesh about half an inch wide, makes a pretty fin- 
ish. 

Double netting is very pretty for a purse : a mesh 
of the same size as that for the mitten may be used, 
but the foundation should only be 60 stitches round. 

* Be very careful not to twist the two silks together : litis 
you may avoid if you always observe to lay the needle you did 
the last stitch with beyond that you are to take up. 
16 



182 KNITTING, NETTING, 

PATTERNS FOR D'OYLEYS, BASKET, OR FISH NAPKINS, 
AND PURSES. 

No. 1. 

Begin with any even number of stitches. Net 2 
rows as in single diamond netting, beginning with 
a stitch with the silk once round the mesh. 3rd 
row : 1st stitch, put the silk twice round the mesh, 
and, after passing the needle quite through the fin- 
ger loop (as in simple netting), draw the stitch you 
are going to net on through the loop stitch of the 
last row but one, net it ; you will find the second 
stitch is also through the loop, net that too — putting 
the silk once round the mesh : repeat these stitches 
to the end of the row. 4th row : 1st stitch twice 
round the mesh, take it at full length, net the row, 
every other stitch is a loop stitch. 5th row is like 
the 3rd, with this exception, the 1st stitch is once 
round the mesh. 

No. 2. 
Any even number of stitches. Net 2 plain rows. 
3rd row : pass the silk twice round the mesh every 
stitch, or take a mesh as large again as the first for 
this row : net the 1st stitch, miss a stitch, net 3 ad- 
ditional stitches in the next, miss a stitch, net 3 
additional stitches in the next; miss a stitch, and 
net additional stitches to the end. 4th row : silk 
once round the mesh. Net the additional stitches 
as a stitch to make up for the stitch you missed last 
row. 5th row, plain netting. Begin again with 
the 3d row, taking care to place the added stitches 
over the missed stitch. 



AND CROTCHET WORK. 183 

No. 3. 

Each repetition of the pattern requires 5 stitches : 
add as many as you please for the border, which is 
always netted plain. Net 3 stitches, increase 4 in 
each of the 2 next stitches (this makes the 5), begin 
again. 2nd row : net all the additional stitches 
with the stitch between them, the other stitches are 
plain netting. 3rd row, plain netting. 4th row : 
2 plain stitches, 2 tufted stitches, 1 plain. 5th row 
like the 2nd. 6th plain. Begin again with the 1st. 



NETTED LAMBS'-WOOL SHAWL OR HANDKERCHIEF. 

The middle should he one color, the border flain or 
shaded ; Two ounces of white wool, and half an 
ounce of colored, are required. Mesh No. 9 or 10. 

Begin with 8 stitches on a round foundation, or 
it looks rather neater if no foundation be used. In- 
crease a stitch in every other stitch (these increased 
stitches form the corners) for the 1st round ; after- 
wards increase 1 stitch in every corner stitch every 
round. When the shawl is large enough net the 
border, still increasing in the corner stitches. Fin- 
ish the shawl by netting a fringe round it, the color 
of the centre. 



NETTED SOFA TIDY. 



Begin on a foundation of 107 stitches on a mesh 
No. 8, and moderately coarse cotton. Net 1 row : 



184 KNITTING, NETTING, 

in the next row, instead of netting the first stitch aa 
usual, draw out the mesh, and pull the cotton tight 
to the side of the stitch you are netting on. Every 
row is alike, and, as you diminish one stitch in each 
row, of course you end in a single stitch. Cut it off 
the foundation, and (to make it square) fasten the 
cotton on at the 107 stitches : diminish as before, 
and when the square is completed, net a fringe 
round it. 



TO WORK THE BACKS OF NETTED MITTENS 

Pass the silk under the knot in the last row but 
one, either once or twice, as you prefer : in the 
next row net the 2 loops as 1 stitch. 



FEATHER MITS. 

These mils are very nice and warm to draw over 
long gloves in going to evening parties. Four 
needles No. 13, and German lambs'-wool are re- 
quired ; the wool should be knitted in shades of 
either half or a whole skein of wool. 

Cast 38 stitches on one, and 19 on each of the 2 
other needles. Knit a plain round. Bring the 
wool forward, knit 1 stitch, repeat this twice; de- 
crease, taking 2 stitches together three times ; knit 
1 stitch, this is the centre stitch of the pattern, a d 
is always plain knitting; decrease 3 times; in- 
crease 3 times; repeat these 19 stitches all round 



AND CROTCHET WORK. 185 

Plain knit 3 rounds. These 4 rounds repeated form 
the pattern. 



CUFFS, PEACOCK STITCH. 

Four needles No. 20, and lace thread or very fine 
cotton are required. 

Cast 32 stitches on each of 3 needles. Purl 3 
stitches, knit 3 stitches, bring the thread forward, 
knit 8 stitches, bringing the thread forward between 
each, knit 2 stitches, repeat these stitches round. 
2nd round : Purl 3 stitches, pass the thread back, 
slip 1 stitch, knit 1 and pull the slipped stitch over 
the knitted one, knit plain until within 2 stitches of 
the purl, knit them taken together, repeat all round. 
Repeat this last round until you have only 15 
stitches between the purled stitches. Purl 3 stitches, 
pass the thread back, slip 1 stitch, knit 1 and pull 
the slipped stitch over the knitted one, knit 2 
stitches, bring the thread forward, and knit 8 
stitches bringing the thread forward between each, 
knit 1 stitch, knit 2 taken together, repeat this for 
the round; then begin again at the 2nd round. 
When the cuff is long enough cast off and sew a 
bit of lace at each edge. 



16* 



1 si i KNITTING, NETTING, 

NETTED CUFFS. 

Four skeins of colored lambs' -wool and 6 of white , 
a steel -pin Xo. 14, a flat wooden mesh half an 
inch wide, and a foundation of 120 stitches, are 
required. 

Net 2 rows of colored lambs'-wool with the 
steel pin; 1 row with white lambs'-wool and the 
large mesh ; then 1 row with the colored, netting 
J white stitches in one, which reduces the stitches 
to half the number; net another row of colored 
wool ; * 1 of white, 2 of colored, &c, until there 
are 7 rows of white, beside the first, with 2 rows 
of colored between each. Net 2 rows of colored, 
1 of white, netting 2 stitches in every colored one, 
finish with 2 rows of colored. 

Sew it up, double it and run in a ribbon. This 
forms a very warm and pretty cuff to wear over the 
sleeve. 



gentlemen's mufpatees. 



Two needles Jfo. 14, 4 skeins of colored German 
lambs'-wool and 4 of white. 
Cast on 54 stitches; bring the wool forward, 
slip a stitch, and knit 2 stitches taken together ; 
repeat the same to the end of the row; every row 
is the same ; knit up 1 skein of colored wool, 2 of 
white, and finish the muffatee with 1 skein ot 
colored wool ; sew it up. 

* The white rows are netted on the wide mesh, the colored 
on the small mesh. 



AND CROTCHET WORK. 187 

These muffatees are also very nice for ladies, to 
be worn outside the sleeve in very cold weather : 
they are then knitted with 3-ply fleecy, the first 
part done on large needles, the centre on smaller, 
and the remainder on the large needles again. 



A PENCE PURSE, OR JUG. 

Five needles No. 17, and 2 skeins of German 
lamos'-wool of different colors are required. 

Begin with the handle ; cast on 4 stitches, and 
knit backwards and forwards, in common knitting, 
until it is an inch and a half long ; loop 6 stitches 
on the same needle, 26 on the second, and 10 on 
the third (the 5th needle is not required yet). Knit 
off the 1st needle, knitting 2 and ribbing 2 stitches 
alternately; with the 2nd needle rib 2, knit 2, rib 
2, pass the wool back, slip a stitch, knit 1, pull the 
slipped stitch over the knitted one, knit the suc- 
ceeding stitches plain until within 7 of the end; 
then knit 2 taken together, knit 1, rib 2, knit 2 ; 
on the next needle rib 2 and knit 2 alternately ; 
continue to repeat this round until you have only 
12 stitches on the 2nd needle, and you will find you 
have made the spout. Knit 3 rounds, ribbing 2 
and knitting 2 alternately ; take the other color and 
knit 5 rounds in the same manner, then 3 rounds 
with the first color, 5 with the second ; 1 round of 
plain knitting with the first color, 3 rounds ribbed, 
1 plain round, making a stitch between every 2 
stitches; 3 rounds ribbed with the second color; 



188 KNITTING, NETTING, 

knit a plain round ; in the next 2 rounds bring the 
wool forward and knit 2 stitches together. With 
the first color, knit 1 plain round and 3 ribbed ; re- 
peat the last 7 rounds. Now divide the stitches on 
4 needles (there should be 12 on each), begin plain 
knitting, decreasing 1 stitch on each needle; con- 
tinue the same for 5 rounds, decreasing alternately 
at the beginning, middle, and end of each needle ; 
knit 3 rounds, decreasing as you think necessary to 
keep it a good round shape; divide the stitches on 
3 needles, knit a plain round, rib 3 rounds without 
decreasing. Begin again to decrease, and continue 
to do so, until you have only 3 stitches on each 
needle ; fasten oft* with a worsted needle, and sew 
down the handle. 



LADDER STITCH BAG. 

Two needles No, 12. 

Cast on 50 stitches. Second row, knit and rib 2 
stitches alternately ; and in the 3rd row, knit and 
rib the same stitches : in the two following rows 
reverse the knitting and ribbing ; continue this pat- 
tern for 12 rows, and also for 10 stitches at the be- 
ginning and end of each row, to form a border all 
round. Plain knit 1 row (between the borders). 
In the next row (after the 10 stitches), knit the 2nd 
stitch, pulling it over the 1st ; knit the 1st ; knit 
the 4th and 3rd, 6th and 5th ; continue the same to 
the end of the row : every row is alike. Continue 
this pattern until the bag is nearly long enough 



AND CROTCHET WORK. 189 

Add a border as at first, and make the other side to 
correspond. Knit or sew up the sides, and run a 
ribbon round the top. 



NETTED BAG, 

To hold the hall when knitting. 

These bags are plain netted, and the size of the 
foundation must of course vary according to the size 
you wish to have your bag. They are very pretty 
netted with very narrow ribbon in different colors 
The mesh should be rather wide; when the bag is 
half deep enough, net in a ring (either brass or 
whalebone) ; then net on until the bag is sufficient- 
ly long. 

STRIPED PURSE. 

Mesh No. 17 ; foundation 72 stitches wide. 

Net 4 plain rows ; net 1 row, putting the silk 
twice round the mesh ; in the next row net the 2nd 
stitch first (in netting it half turn it) ; then net the 
1st in the same way; repeat these stitches to the 
end of the row. Net 3 plain rows. Net 1 row, 
putting the silk twice round the mesh ; then a row, 
netting the 2nd stitch first; and so on until the 
purse is wide enough. 

N. B. This purse is very pretty with only 2 small 
rows instead of 4, and netted in shades of different 
colors. 



190 KNITTING, NETTING, 



PURSE STITCH. 

Knit the 1st row (except the first and last stitch 
es, which are knitted plain in every row,) taking 2 
stitches together. Knit a plain row. 3rd row, 
slip a stitch, bring the silk forward, pick up the 
thread which is across the hole, taking care not to 
twist it, and knit it with the next stitch, continue 
the same to the end of the row -, the 4th row is 
plain knitting. Begin again at the 1st row. 



BEAD NETTING. 



Net a plain row on a foundation the desired 
length. 2nd row: net to where you wish to place 
a bead, slip a bead close up to the last knot, and 
net a stitch ; repeat the same wherever you wish 
to place a bead, and the next row will fix these in 
their places. 



BEAD NETTING, 

With the bead on the knot. 

Thread a bead needle with some of your netting 
silk ; net a plain row ; net to where you wish to 
place a bead, thread 1 bead and slip it close to the 
mesh, net the next stitch, slip the bead un Jer the 
mesh close up to the last knot, and pass your nee- 
dle and netting silk through the bead, which fixes it 



AND CROTCHET WORK. 191 

on the knot ; repeat the same wherever you wish to 
place a bead. This netting may be done either 
round or open. 



DIAMOND KNITTING. 

For a Quilt Border, 

Cast on 57 stitches, 10 on each side are for the 
border, and are always plain knitting. Knit the 
border, knit 1 stitch, bring the cotton forward, slip 
1, knit 1, and pull the slipped stitch over it, knit 7, 
knit 2 taken together, bring the cotton forward, and 
repeat from the border : your number of stitches 
should always be the same. Back row, knit the 
border stitches, and rib the rest ; every back row is 
the same. Knit to where you decreased last, bring 
the cotton forward, slip 1 stitch, knit 1, and pull the 
slipped stitch over it, knit 5 stitches, decrease by 
taking 2 stitches in 1, bring the cotton forward, knit 
3, repeat the last 12 stitches to the border. Back 
row. You are to continue increasing and decreas- 
ing in the same manner until you have only 3 stitch- 
es between the increases, then decrease at the sides 
of the diamond, which you have made by increas- 
ing, and increase on each side before and after the 
decrease. You will now have enough of the pat- 
tern done to see how to proceed. 

Observe, that when you have only 3 stitches at 
the top of the diamond, you have been decreasing, 
and the back row is done, you begin to decrease the 



192 KNITTING, NETTING, 

other diamond. Also, that after the 1st diamond is 
done, your greatest number of plain stitches between 
the decrease will be 5. 



BORDER FOR A TABLE COVER. 

Cast on 90 stitches. Knit the 1st stitch, bring 
the thread forward, slip a stitch, knit 2 taken to- 
gether, bring the thread forward, slip a stitch, &c 
to the end of the row, where you will find but one 
stitch to knit after the last slipped stitch. Continue 
the pattern (observing to begin every row w T ith one 
plain knitted stitch) until you have enough in length, 
then cast off. 

This border, in crimson cotton or German lambs' - 
wool, is a nice finish to a dark cloth cover. 



BORDER AND FRINGE. 

In 2 colors; for a Table Cover or Shawl. 

Cast on 28 stitches with the first color. Knit 2 
stitches with the 2nd color, knit 2 stitches with the 
1st color, 2 with the 2nd, 2 with the 1st, and con- 
tinue the same to the end of the row, which will be 
2 stitches of the 1st color. Begin the next row by 
knitting 2 stitches of the 1st color, pass the thread 
forward, place it under the thumb of the left hand, 
pass the 2nd color back and knit 2 stitches, continue 
the same to the end of the row, and then begin 



AND CROTCHET WORK. 193 

again at the 2nd row, only observing to knit the 2nd 
color over the 1st and the 1st over the 2nd. After 
2 more rows, reverse the colors again. 

When you have a sufficient length, cast off 20 
stitches and unravel 8 for the fringe. 



LEGGINGS. 



Two ivory needles and rather fine lambs'-wool are 
required. 

Cast on 44 stitches, knit 7 rows, then knit 2 
inches, knitting and ribbing 2 stitches alternately ; 
knit 8 rows, continue plain knitting and increase at 
the beginning and ending of every 4th row ; when 
you have 60 stitches knit 4 rows, then decrease in 
the same proportion as you increased, until you have 
but 52 stitches ; knit 6 rows, and finish to match 
the top. Sew them up. 



NIGHT-CAP. 

French Pattern. 

Cast 2 stitches on each of 4 needles, knit round 
increasing them to 4, next round increase 1 on each 
needle and make seams of the centre stitches. Knit 
round increasing 1 stitch on each side of the seam 
(leaving 3 stitches between the 2 that are increased) 
on each needle. When your cap is large enough 
round, leave off seaming, and knit round until the 
17 



194 KNITTING, NETTING, 

cap is three-fourths of a yard long : make the end 
like the beginning. 



LAMBS'-WOOL SLEEVE. 

Cast on each of 3 needles 18 or 24 stitches, ac- 
cording to the size of the sleeve wished for ; knit 
and rib 3 stitches alternately until the sleeve is 
about 3 inches long. Then take coarser needles 
and coarser lambs'-wool, and knit plain until the 
sleeve is nearly long enough, and finish by ribbing 
it again for about an inch and a half. 



baby's lambs'-wool cap. 
Cast on 60 stitches. Knit 3 or 4 rows plain. 
Knit about 20 turns in double knitting; this will 
make it 14 inches in length and 7 inches in depth. 
Knit 12 turns plain and 10 turns double knitting. 
Knit 2 or 3 turns plain knitting, reducing the num- 
ber of stitches so as to form the crown. Fasten it 
up a little way behind, turn back the first part ot 
double knitting, and run a ribbon through it. 



BRIOCHE OR MOORISH CUSHION. 

Choose any number of colored wools, or if j)re- 
ferred, two that contrast well. Two needles 
"No. 12. 
Cast on 60 stitches, bring the wool forward, slip 

a stitch, knit 1 (by this you increase by a loop) 



AND CROTCHET WORK. 195 

stitch), bring the wool forward, slip a stitch, knit 
1 ; repeat these stitches to the end of the row. 2nd 
row: bring the wool forward, slip a stitch, knit the 
loop made last row with the next stitch, bring the 
wool forward, slip a stitch, knit the loop and stitch 
together ; repeat these stitches to the end of the 
row. Knit 6 more rows in the same manner, the 
stitch is the same throughout. Fasten on the 2nd 
color, bring the wool forward, slip a stitch, knit 1, 
bring the wool forward, slip a stitch, knit 1. Now 
instead of continuing the row 7 , turn back. Bring 
the wool forward, slip a stitch, knit 1, bring the 
wool forward, slip a stitch, knit 1. Continue to 
increase the number you slip and knit by 4 every 
time, until all the 60 have been knitted. Knit 8 
rows of the 1st color, and proceed as before. 
Twelve of these divisions will make the cushion 
large enough. The following succession of colors 
w r ith dark stripes between, is very pretty j green, 
lilac, yellow, blue, white, and scarlet. 

Sew it up at the side. Net a fringe with double 
coarse lambs'-wool to the narrow part, and run in 
a string to tie it tightly together under the fringe. 
Make a round cushion, and cover it w T ith the knit- 
ting. 



SINGLE CROTCHET STITCH. 

Shades of German wool are the prettiest. 

With a good-sized ivory crotchet-needle, make a 
chain of 50 loops, place the first stitch behind the 
last, pass your needle through it, put your wool 



196 KNITTING, NETTING, 

round your needle and pull it through both stitches : 
this will join the two ends together, then pass your 
needle through the next stitch, catch the wool on 
your needle, pull it through the stitch and through 
the loop on your needle ; continue the same round 
and round, varying the shades, until your muffatee 
is two inches deep, then begin the following pat- 
tern : — 

Muffatee stitch. 

The only difference between this stitch and the 
previous one is, that instead of passing your needle 
through the upper edge or side of the stitch, you 
pass it through the under one. This is the stitch 
generally used for mittens, baby's shoes, gaiters, 
gloves, &c. 

Finish your muffatee with an equal depth of the 
first pattern. 

The beauty of crotchet work depends on its being 
done evenly, and the loops not drawn too tight. 



DOUBLE CROTCHET STITCH. 

Begin as in single crotchet ; when you have pulled 
the silk or wool through the foundation stitch, keep 
it on your needle so as to have two stitches, catch 
the silk at the back (without passing your needle 
through any loop or stitch), and pull the silk 
through both the stitches on your needle ; by this, 
you do two rounds at once. 

This stitch is very pretty for bags : the founda- 
tion should be a chain of from 80 to 120 stitches. 



AND CROTCHET WORK. 19? 



PLAIN DOUBLE CROTCHET STITCH PURSE. 

Begin with a chain of 8 loops; crotchet round, 
:ncreasing 1 stitch by making a chain stitch after 
each stitch; crotchet 1 round without increasing; 
continue to increase 8 stitches in every other round 
until you have 80 or 100 stitches according to the 
size of the netting silk ; no further increase will be 
required. 

If the purse is intended to be a long one, when 
you come to the opening you must crotchet back- 
wards and forwards in rows instead of rounds. To 
avoid losing 1 stitch in every row, you must make 
a chain stitch before beginning the row. 

The opposite end may be finished either square 
or round ; if square, it should have a fringe ; if 
round, you must decrease (which is done by miss- 
ing a loop) in the same proportion as you increased. 



OPEN CROTCHET PURSE. 

A steel needle and middling-sized silk are required. 

Make a chain of 8 stitches, and crotchet round, 
making a chain stitch after each stitch, until you 
have 32 stitches ; crochet 1 round without increase, 
then begin the open pattern as follows : Make 3 
chain stitches, pass the needle through the next 
stitch of the foundation, crotchet it in double crotchet 
stitch; repeat this all round. In the future rounds 
make 5 chain stitches, and pass the needle through 
the centre stitch of the festoon. 
17* 



198 KNITTING, NETTING, 



gentleman's CAP 



Double crotchet stitch. 
This cap may be made either with German lambs 1 - 
wool or 3-ply fleecy. A coarse ivory crotchet 
needle is required ; the colors may be varied at 
the pleasure of the worker ; for brevity 1 s sake 
only three are named : viz. dark brown, scarlet, 
and light green. 

Make a chain, rather longer than the circumfer- 
ence of the cap required, with brown wool, join the 
ends together as directed in double crotchet, stitch 
and crotchet 3 rounds. 

Prepare for working with the scarlet wool by 
fastening it on a few stitches before you want to 
use it in the following manner : — Place the woo] 
along the first ringer of the left hand, crotchet one 
brown stitch, passing the needle over the scarlet 
wool, in the next stitch pass it under, and proceed 
in this manner until you want it ; then keep the 
brown out of sight in a similar way. Whenever 
you work with more than one color, this must be 
strictly attended to, or the color you are not using 
will hang in loops at the back of your work. 

Crotchet 3 brown and 2 scarlet stitches alternale 
ly for 3 rounds. Crochet 3 rounds of brown : fas- 
ten on the scarlet again for another stripe and make 
the spots green. Continue thus to vary the color.! 
until the cap is about 6 inches long; then begin t^ 
decrease for the top of the cap by passing the nee- 
dle through 2 stitches at once after every 6 stitches 
for one round : then after every 5 stitches ; and so 



AND CROTCHET WORK. 199 

on until you have very few stitches left. Fasten off 
with a cross stitch needle and sew on a tassel. 

Crotchet work may be done from any Berlin pat- 
tern. Pines are particularly pretty ; and clouded 
wools and silks work in very nicely 



SHOE AND STOCKING SOCKS. 

For holes, set up sixty-six stitches, (for the figure 
below 65). The ancles 36 rows deep (either ribbed 
like a stocking, or with the figure below), of which 
5 rows of holes, 2 plain rows being between each 
row of holes. After the ancle commence 2 stripes 
of the figure for the instep, leaving the rest of the 
stitches on the other needle, without working. 
Work the instep the length of 9 complete figures, 
then leave that needle, and work the back of the 
sock with zephyr worsted, making 12 stitches at 
each end of the needle, for the straps. First 2 
plain rows the whole breadth, then 2 rows inverted, 
then two plain rows, then a row of holes, then 2 
plain rows, then 2 inverted, taking off 12 stitches at 
each end for the straps by slipping and binding. 
Then make the heel by 4 plain rows and 2 inverted 
alternately till the fourth plain stripe, when there 
should be 37 stitches ; at the first row of the stripe 
narrow 3 stitches each side of the centre stitch, then 
three more plain rows, then an inverted stripe, then 
narrow 2 stitches each side of the centre stitch, 
then 3 more plain rows, then put the stitches on 2 
needles and slip and bind them together for the heel. 
Then take 50 stitches (or more) along the heel for 



200 KNITTING, NETTING, 

the sole, then 2 plain rows, then narrow 1 stitch 
each side, and afterwards narrow every other row 
till each side 30 stitches remain. The first plain 
stripe 6 rows, all the others 4, and 2 inverted be- 
tween each. After the fourth inverted stripe com- 
mence knitting plain rows from the instep for the 
toe, knitting all around plain and inverted stripes 
alternately, till the first row of the fourth plain stripe 
of the toe, then at that first row narrow 1 every 
seventh stitch. At the next first row of the plain 
stripe, narrow 1 every sixth stitch — in the next 
every fifth — so on, 1 less each time, till there are 
5 inverted stripes, then narrow every other row, at 1 
stitch less between each time, till only 16 stitches 
remain, then divide on two needles, and slip and 
bind them together, finishing the sock. And sew 
up the sock each side on the wrong side. 

The Figure. 

1st row — seam 2 stitches, slip one and bind, make 
7 stitches, narrow 1. 

2nd row — seam 2, knit 14, narrow 1. 
3rd row — seam 2, slip and bind, knit 11, narrow 1. 
4th row — seam 2, slip and bind, knit 9, narrow 1. 
Then commence again the same. 

ANOTHER TOP OF SOCKS. 

Knit 3 stitches, make 1, knit 1, narrow, knit 1, 
make 1, knit 1, narrow, knit 1, make 1, knit 1, 
narrow, knit 1, make 1, knit 1, narrow, knit 1, 
make 1, knit 1, narrow. 



AND CROTCHET WORK. 201 



SOCKS WITHOUT SHOE AND STOCKING. 

Set up 60 stitches. 

6 white rows increasing 1 stitch on the right side 
forming at the sixth white row 63 stitches. The 
beginning at the toe 1 red stitch, 5 white, 3 red, 3 
white, 4 red, 2 white, 5 red, 1 white, making the 
first red stitch straight down. Then 4 rows of 
plain red w T orking right on both the right and wrong 
side and narrowing 1 stitch on each wrong side. 
Then four white the same. Then again 4 red the 
same. Then plain white row, without narrowing 
and on wrong side as if on right. Then the holes 
without narrowing. White one row taking 2 
stitches and passing the third in front, then plain 
row on the right side, then another row of holes the 
same as above. Then one row plain red on the 
right side. Then a row plain red on the wrong as 
if on the right side, taking up a stitch in the middle 
of the red and knitting it at the toe. Then a plain 
row of red on the right side. Then on the wrong 
side as if on the right 26 stitches on 1 needle, then 
leave it at the heel side and with third needle the rest, 
and take up a row at the toe a second stitch red close 
on the white. Then a plain row white on the right 
side, then back again to the toe on the wrong side 
as if on the right, and take up third stitch white at 
the w T hite close to the red nearest to the needle. 
Then another plain row w 7 hite on the right side, then 
back again to the toe on the wrong side as if on the 
right and take up a stitch white next to the red row 
furthest from the needle. Then a plain row on the 



202 KNITTING, NETTING, 

right side, then back again on wrong as if on right 
side and take up a stitch red next to white. Then 
another plain row, then back again as if on right 
side, and take up another red stitch. Then a row 
on the right side 5 red 1 white. Then on the wrong 
side 4 red 2 white. Then a row 3 red and 3 white. 
Then a row on red 5 white. Then 4 rows white right 
and wrong alternately. Then 4 rows on the right 
and wrong sides as if on the right. Then on the 
right side 1 row plain. Then a row of holes on the 
wrong side. Then 4 rows on right and wrong sides 
as if on the right. Then 4 rows right and wrong 
alternately. Then a row 1 stitch red 5 white be- 
ginning at the toe. Then 3 white, 3 red, then 4 
red, 2 white, then 1 white and 5 red. Then 4 red 
rows right and wrong as if on the right side, second 
and fourth rows narrowing at the toe. Then 4 rows 
white exactly the same. Then on the right side 
from the toe 1 row, red increasing at the heel 26 
stitches. Then on the wrong side knit as if on the 
right and narrow at the toe. Then 2 rows as if on 
the right side and narrow at the toe. Then on the 
right 1 plain white row. Then holes on the wrong 
side, then a plain row on the right side, then a row of 
holes on the wrong side, then red on the right side, 
then on the wrong as if on the right and taking up 
a stitch at the toe in the middle of the red, then red 
on the right side, then on wrong as if right taking 1 
up a stitch. The same with white, second row taking 
up a stitch on white close to the red, and fourth take 
up 1 white close to the other red, then red as before 
and taking up red stitch just under beginning o* 
points. Then 5 red 1 white, then 4 red, 2 white, 



AND CROTCHET WORK. 203 

then 3 red, 3 white, 1 red, 5 white, then six plain 
rows white taking up at the heel one stitch each 
time Then slip and bind. Then for the ancle 
take up all the stitches on a line with those on the 
needle, put them all on 1 needle, making in all 72 
stitches. Then work two plain rows white. Then 
on the right side as if on the wrong; 1 row, then on 
the wrong as if on the right 1 row. Then 2 plain 
rows. Then on the right as if on the wrong, then on 
the wrong as if on the right. Then on the right side a 
row of holes. Then on the wrong side as if on the 
right, then on the right as if on the wrong. Then 3 
plain rows, then on the right as if on the wrong, 
then on the wrong as if on the right. Then on the 
right side begin holes 2 plain stitches, 3 holes, then 
go back plain on the wrong, and so on till ten rows 
of holes, then a plain row. Then red on the wrong 
side as if on the right, then on the right as if on the 
wrong, then a double row of holes as in the foot. 
Then slip and bind. Then slip and bind the 2 sides 
of the sole together. Then sew up the back and 
the toe. 



MITTS WITH THE FIGURE ON THE BACK OF THE HANI), 
AND HOLES INSIDE AND IN THE THUMB. 

Left Hand. Set up 72 stitches (or for a very 
small hand 66). 3 plain and 3 seam stitches for 
the wrist about 30 deep. In the thumb, first 3 in- 
creasing rows every other row, then every fifth, (that 
is 4 rows alike) till widened 25 rows. Take off 27 
including seams. Make 11 stitches afterwards 



204 KNITTING; NETTING, 

Then next row plain. Narrow twice, a plain row 
between. First row of holes in the hand after 1 
plain row. First hole in the thumb at the plain row 
after the thumb is widened 5 stitches. Then 3 
plain rows between each row of the holes. On the 
left hand 1 plain stitch between thumb and begin- 
ning of figure on the back of the hand. 

On the Right Hand corresponding stitch. After 
taking up thumb stitches, narrow thumb every time 
till 28 stitches remain. Length of thumb about 22 
rows of holes. Length of mitt from the thumb to 
the end 12 rows of holes. 



PLAIN MITT. 



Set up 80 stitches. Between seams on the backs 
9 stitches and 8 stitches, and 2 stitches for each seam 
except the seams for thumb. The rest as above ex- 
cept narrow thumb every other row and till 30 
stitches remain. 



A PAIR OF GLOVES LARGE MEN'S SIZE . 

Purse Silk — 21 Skeins. 

Left Hand. Set up 104 stitches. The wrist 
with the figure as above. Depth of wrist, 8 com- 
plete figures. Width the same. Afterwards 1 plain 
row. Then 4 plain stitches, 1 inverted, widen 1, 
another inverted (for thumb), 14 plain, 2 inverted 
for seam stitches, 11 plain, 2 inverted, 10 plain, 2 



AND CROTCHET WORK. 205 

inverted, 12 plain, 2 inverted. Then plain till back 
again to the thumb. The first 6 increasing rows of 
the thumb every other row. Then increase only 
every fifth row till thumb increased 37 stitches wide. 
(The increasing made by making a stitch through 
the stitch next to the 2 inverted ones, widening be- 
tween the 2 inverted ones ; though the first in- 
creasing is by making a stitch of the loop each side 
of the plain stitch which is at the commencement 
of the thumb between the two inverted.) Then 
take off on a thread the 37 stitches with the 2 in- 
verted, instead of increasing again. When the thumb 
is 29 wide, knit the 4 stitches before the inverted 
and take the 39 off on a thread which tie. Then 
make 13 stitches next to the 4, then knit 4 more 
stitches on that needle. Then continue the round 
as before. Then knit another row. Then knit 
the 4 stitches before the thumb, then narrow 1 stitch, 
then knit the other stitches, narrow the one before 
the 4 after the thumb. Continue the row. Next 
row without narrowing. The next row narrow as 
before. Then about 23 rows without narrowing. 
Then for the little finger, after knitting the 2 inverted 
before the last seam take off 26 stitches on a thread 
(there being 12 each side of the last 2 inverted) 
then make 13 stitches, put 2 stitches on that needle, 
continue the row and leave off inverting there. 
Make 1 row plain. Then the first of the 13, and at 
the last of the narrow 13. The next row without 
narrowing. The next row narrow as before. Then 
2 plain rows. Then after making second seam take 
off 31 stitches on a thread and make 13 stitches. 
1 row plain. The next narrow between the fingers. 
18 



206 KNITTING, NETTING, 

Then plain row. Then narrow again. Next row 
plain. Then after the half of first seam take off 33 
stitches (one of which being one of the inverted 
stitches). Then make 13. 1 row plain. Then at 
the 13 narrow as before. Then 1 row plain, then 
narrow again, then plain and so on till the finger is 
only 39 stitches, which divide equally on three nee- 
dles. Then knit till nearly right length. Then at 
the second stitch of each needle narrow every other 
row till 8 stitches remain on each needle. Then 
narrow every row till 3 stitches on each needle, then 
finish it off by sewing them together, running the 
silk through each loop. Then the thumb — Take 
the stitches off the thread, and of those between the 
finger and thumb take up 18. Then begin to knit 
at back seam, put 2 stitches on needle after each 
seam — 2 rows plain — then narrow between the fin- 
gers next to the 2 stitches each side of the needle — 
next row plain — next narrow and so on till 42 stitches 
remain. When of right length finish off as before. 
For the other fingers — 1 plain row, then narrow be- 
tween the fingers in the same way ; making second 
finger 38 stitches wide. Third finger 36 wide, and 
little finger 33 stitches wide. 

For the Right Hand. The same, except after 
the wrist, commence the seam at the side of the 
hand first instead of those for the thumb, which will 
make it thus : after the 4 plain stitches, 2 inverted, 
then 12 plain, then 2 inverted, then 10 plain, 2 in- 
verted, then 11 plain, then 2 inverted, then 14 plain, 
then 1 inverted, then widen 1, 1 plain, widen an- 
other, 1 inverted to form the thumb. Then plain 
till the side seam again, and so on. 



AND CROTCHET WORK 207 

N. B. Do not forget to continue the side seam 
all through the little fingers. 

After setting up, knit first 6 stitches with both 
ends of silk. For smaller hand set up 9 1 stitches. 



THE END